# Free Verbal Practice Test - CAT

The author specifically mentions all of the following as difficulties that particularly affect women who are theoreticians of feminist literary criticism EXCEPT the -

A.

tendency of a predominantly male academic establishment to form preconceptions about women

B.

likelihood that the work of a woman theoretician who claims the privilege of art will be viewed with prejudice by some academics

C.

inescapability of power struggles between women in the academic profession and the academic establishment

D.

tendency of members of the academic establishment to treat all forms of feminist literary theory with hostility

#### SOLUTION

Solution : D

Look at these lines in the second paragraph -
“If she defines feminist criticism as creative and intuitive, privileged as art, then her work becomes vulnerable to the prejudices of stereotypic ideas about the ways in which women think, and will be dismissed by much of the academic establishment”
Also have a look at these lines in the third paragraph.
“women scholars—only now entering the academic profession in substantial numbers”
Therefore (a) is not the answer.

In the second paragraph the following lines -
“Because of these prejudices, women who use an intuitive approach in their criticism may find themselves charged with inability to be analytical, to be objective, or to think critically”
Show that (b) can’t be the answer.

In the third paragraph the following lines
“These questions are political in the sense that the debate over them will inevitably be less an exploration of abstract matters in a spirit of disinterested inquiry than an academic power struggle in which the careers and professional fortunes of many women scholars—only now entering the academic profession in substantial numbers—will be at stake”
Also ensure that option (c) is wrong.
The correct answer is (d).

It can be inferred that the author believes which of the following about women who are literary critics?
I. They can make a unique contribution to society.
II. They must develop a new theory of the critical process.
III. Earlier, there were very few women in academic profession.

A.

I only

B.

I and III only

C.

II and III only

D.

I, II, and III

#### SOLUTION

Solution : A

Look at these lines from the third paragraph -
“with them the chances for a distinctive contribution to humanistic understanding, a contribution that might be an important influence against sexism in our society.”
So definitely (I) is true.
Look at these lines from the last paragraph-
“If she wishes to construct a theory of feminist criticism, she would be well advised to place it within the framework of a general theory”
The author states that women literary critics must place her theory within the framework of a general theory. He does not advise them to develop a new theory.
So (II) is wrong.
The following lines from the third paragraph
“women scholars—only now entering the academic profession in substantial numbers”
Make (III) a very good option. But option III states that “Earlier, there were very few women in academic profession “
We know that women are entering in great numbers now. That does not indicate that there were very few women earlier in academic profession.
So (III) is also wrong. The correct answer is (a).

According to the author, the debate mentioned in the passage has special significance for the woman who is a theoretician of feminist literary criticism for which of the following reasons?

A.

There are large numbers of capable women working within the academic establishment.

B.

There are a few powerful feminist critics who have been recognized by the academic establishment.

C.

Like other critics, most women who are literary critics define criticism as either scientific or artistic.

D.

Women who are literary critics face professional risks different from those faced by men who are literary critics.

#### SOLUTION

Solution : D

Look at the following lines from the second paragraph -
Opening line “For the woman who is a practitioner of feminist literary criticism, the subjectivity versus objectivity, or critic-as-artist-or-scientist, debate has special significance
Closing lines “Whereas men may be free to claim the role of critic-as-artist, women run different professional risks when they choose intuition and private experience as critical method and defense”
If we sum up these two lines, we find that (d) is the only correct answer.

Which of the following methods is NOT used extensively by the author in describing his own conception of power?

A.

Restatement of central ideas

B.

Provision of concrete examples

C.

Analysis and classification

D.

Comparison and contrast

#### SOLUTION

Solution : B

In this passage the author has not used any examples to prove his point.
Restatement of ideas is found in the second paragraph. Analysis, classification, compare and contrast have been done in the entire passage.

The author's attitude toward the various kinds of compulsion employed by social institutions is best described as:

A.

scientific and detached

B.

concerned and sympathetic

C.

suspicious and cautious

D.

reproachful and disturbed

#### SOLUTION

Solution : A

The author is not biased. He is not prejudiced. He defines power, its nature and characteristics in a scientific way. He is not sympathetic and neither is he suspicious. He is also not disturbed. 'Reproachful' means being very critical of someone or something especially for not being successful. This is not the case here. So the correct answer is option (a).

According to the passage, states of power are transient because of the:

A.

differing natures and directions of the forces that create them

B.

unique source from which they emanate

C.

pervasive nature and complexity of the mechanisms by which they operate

D.

concatenation that seeks to arrest their movement

#### SOLUTION

Solution : A

Look at these lines in 3rd paragraph which clearly indicate that option (a) is the correct answer.

"but in the moving substrate of force relations that, by virtue of their inequality, constantly engender local and unstable states of power. If power seems omnipresent, it is not because it has the privilege of consolidating everything under its invincible unity, but because it is produced from one moment to the next, at every point”.

It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes the conflict among social forces to be:

A.

essentially the same from one society to another even though its outward manifestation may seem different

B.

usually the result of misunderstandings that impede social progress

C.

an inevitable feature of the social order of any state

D.

None of these

#### SOLUTION

Solution : C

This is a data based question.
Look at these lines in 2nd
paragraph -
"It seems to me that power must be understood as the multiplicity of force relations that are immanent in the social sphere; as the process that, through ceaseless struggle and confrontation, transforms, strengthens, or reverses them”. So clearly the answer is option (c).

In which of the following examples do you think the author will agree that you are mindful?

A. You are playing a game of cards and you are losing that game. A feeling of disappointment overwhelms you.
B.

You are playing cricket.  You have just now hit a six.  You are overcome with a transient moment of happiness.

C.

You have been awarded the "The best outgoing student” cup in a function. You are feeling the cup in your hand and looking at the crowd.

D. You are writing the CAT exam. You see a question which you have solved before. You are very excited for a short period of time. But you are not able to solve the problem and you feel dejected.

#### SOLUTION

Solution : C

First we need to define what is "mindful". There are lots of examples but we need to look at the defining lines.
Look at the first few lines of the 4th paragraph -

"I am mindful that I am sitting at a table, seeing the room around me, hearing the sound the cards make as I shuffle them, feeling the coordinated hand motions necessary to shuffle them. I must count out the first seven cards to form my playing field.  The count tends to develop an inertia and rhythm of its own.  Can I remain mindful, or do I get pulled into the counting activity so much that I lose track of my immediate sensory impressions?”

According to the author "mindfulness" is "immediate sensory perceptions”.
Look at the above example. Once you start playing cards you are mindful or you are feeling the environment, seeing the room around and hearing the sound of the cards. Your mind should not distracted by the counting activity immediately. This is the meaning of "mindfulness".
Let us look at option (a) - You are playing a game of cards and you are losing that game. A feeling of disappointment overwhelms you.
When you are playing cards, "mindfulness" means you are concentrating in the game .You should not be overcome by emotions.

Look at these lines in the 6th
paragraph -
"But after the initial run nothing plays for a while.  My thoughts tell me that I am going to be stuck;  I will lose this hand.  The disappointed feeling starts sucking my attention in,  but I see the feeling and manage to maintain mindfulness.” So "mindfulness" means not to get caught in the disappointment feeling.

Let us look at option (b) - You are playing cricket. You have just now hit a six. You are overcome with a transient moment of happiness.
It has the same problem as option (a). You are overcome by transient emotions when you are supposed to be feeling the game, bat and the surroundings.
Option (d) also has the same problem.

So option (c) is the correct answer. Look at option (c) - "You have been awarded the "The best outgoing student” cup in a function. You are feeling the cup in your hand and looking at the crowd.”

You are given the award. You are mindful as you are feeling the cup and the surroundings. Moreover you are not overcome by the emotions.

As per the passage, which of the following is true?

A. Emotional stakes are generally high in solitaire games.
B. Ordinary social interaction is richer than paying adequate attention to Klodike solitaire and playing to win.
C. Solitaire is a game filled with emotions and not much of strategy or forethought.
D. Emotional stakes are generally high in solitaire games as well as ordinary social interaction is richer than paying adequate attention to Klodike solitaire and playing to win.

#### SOLUTION

Solution : B

First let us look at option (c).
The following lines from 2nd paragraph proves that (c) is wrong.
"You must occasionally make strategic decisions about which of two or more possible moves is better”.
Let us look at option (a).
Let us look at these lines from the last paragraph -
"The "emotional stakes”  are generally much higher when you are playing with another human”.
Emotional stakes are high generally only in solitaire where you have a human opponent. It is not true for all solitaire games.
So option (a) is not correct.
The correct answer is option (b). Look at these lines in the third paragraph -
"Observations of transient mental and emotional phenomena that apply in many areas of life is possible in this rich situation,  as I will illustrate by describing a typical experiential sequence for me.”
The typical experience is playing the game.

A suitable title for the passage is:

A. "Emotional Stakes” in the deck of cards.
B. Klodike Solitaire - An analogy for mindfulness
C. Emotions and mindfulness in Klondike solitaire
D. Solitaire - A game of emotions and mindfulness.

#### SOLUTION

Solution : A

This is a tough question.

Option (b) is wrong because it states that the game is an example for mindfulness. The whole passage talks about the emotions in that game which can be used to explain mindfulness. The game itself is not an analogy for mindfulness.
Option (d) is also wrong because solitaire is not a game of emotions and mindfulness. It is a game of cards filled with emotions and mindfulness.
It is a very close call between options (a) and (c).
The whole passage is about the plethora of emotions in this game. It is more like a gambling of emotions in a cards game. One emotion comes and goes which is then followed by a contrasting emotion coming up and going.

It is more like a gambling of emotions in the author's mind when he is playing the game of solitaire. So the better answer is option (a) rather than option (c). It is more a narrative passage rather than a descriptive passage. Option (a) is an apt heading for a narrative passage and option (c) is more of a title for a descriptive passage.

So option (a) is the correct answer.

Which of the following views are endorsed by the author?

A. Solitaire is a game which is closer to life as it is better than classical vipassana meditation.
B. The idea of playing solitaire cards game to cultivate mindfulness is radical.
C. It is possible to observe transient mental and emotional phenomena in a game of solitaire cards.
D. All of these

#### SOLUTION

Solution : C

Read the question properly. Don't be in a hurry. The question is - "Which of the following views are endorsed by the author”?
So the answer demands an endorsement from the author.
Look at these lines -
For option (a): 2nd Paragraph - "Compared to classical vipassana meditation, considerable activity of physical motion, counting, and decision making is added, thus moving closer to life.”
For Option (b): 1st paragraph - "The very idea of playing cards to cultivate mindfulness has some shock value in itself!”
For Option (c): 3rd paragraph - "Observations of transient mental and emotional phenomena that apply in many areas of life is possible in this rich situation, as I will illustrate by describing a typical experiential sequence for me. "

It looks like all the three options are correct. So you might feel that (d) is the right option.

But looking at all the lines very closely, we find the endorsement only in (c). The author has personally said that he will illustrate he can observe the transient and emotional phenomena in this game. All the other lines are generic statements without any particular endorsements by the author (The answer demands that the pronoun "I” be there in the line).

It is a very tricky question. It is very easy provided you know this concept.

Infer which "one” of the following words can you definitely associate with the word "emotions” as discussed in the passage?

A. Eternal
B. Momentary
C. Rapid
D. Fluctuating

#### SOLUTION

Solution : C

This is a tricky question. The question is "Which adjective you will definitely associate with "emotions”?
Look at these lines from the last but one paragraph.
"Each was eternal when I lost mindfulness and was absorbed in it, yet I see they come and go like the wind as the play of the cards changes.”
He says the emotions are eternal but yet they are fleeting (changing). So you need to associate both eternal and fluctuating with "emotions”. You cannot associate only one of them.
So options (a), (b) and (d) are all ruled out.
Option (c) is correct . The emotions are rapid. Rapid means fast. It doesn't mean that they change rapidly.
Look at these lines in the last paragraph -

"If I am making this sound exciting, it can indeed be when you are mindful enough to see this rapid play of emotion”.

The emotions are rapid. So option (c) is the correct answer.

(A)After making a mark on [A] in [B] the medical animation sector, Coimbatore - based Mark IV Animation Studios is in the process to launch [A] / of launching [B] an e-learning system.
(B) Instead of resisting globalization, there should be an attempt to reap [A] / reaping [B] the the benefits it brings.
(C) A pragmatic approach that looked at ways and means of tackling [A] / to tackle [B] the problems that globalization ushered in, is required.
(D) Driven [A] / driving [B] to the wall, distributors have found a way to circumvent the regulations.

A.

AABBA

B.

BBAAA

C.

BAABA

D.

BABBA

#### SOLUTION

Solution : B

A mark is made in a field, it means an achievement in the field hence option B is correct.
To have a parallelism in construction 'making' should be followed by 'launching.'
Insentence 2 an attempt is made to do something hence 'to reap' is correct.
'Means oftackling' is correct in sentence 3 'Driven to the wall' is a phrase which means reaching the end of one's patience and tolerance.  Hence it is Option A. Thus, the option BBAAA iscorrect.

(A)  In today's [A] / todays' competitive scenario each company should investigate into [A] /investigate [B] ways of increasing productivity.
(B)Teachers in the primary school are responsible for making sure that their pupils do behaveproperly [A] / behave properly [B]
(C)The Short-term course in English provided by the Osmania University should provide more[A] / more of [B] practical sessions.
(D)If a mountainous country has no natural resources, it has [a] so it has [B]to rely heavily onimports from other countries.

A.

ABBAA

B.

AAABB

C.

BAABB

D.

BAABB

#### SOLUTION

Solution : A

The apostrophe should be before the 's' hence option A is correct.
We 'look into' something but we investigate something hence B is correct.
In sentence 2 option B is correct because we should use 'do' in a positive clause only when we wish to expressemphasis.  For example.  'I do like these fruits.'
In sentence 3 'more' should not befollowed by 'of' hence option A is acceptable.

In sentence 4 since the first clause begins with a conjunction (if), the next clause cannot begin with so.  Hence ABBAA is correct.

Using the phone at her desk, Sylvia in Corporate Sales consistently generates a very steady $1500 per hour in gross revenue for her firm. After all of her firm's costs have been subtracted, Sylvia's sales amount to$100 in bottom line (net) profits every 15 minutes. At 10:00 a.m. one day the desk phone Sylvia uses to make her sales calls breaks. Without the phone Sylvia cannot make any sales. Assume that Sylvia's regular schedule is to begin making sales calls at 8:00 a.m. Assume she works the phone for four hours, takes a one hour lunch exactly at noon, and then returns promptly to her desk for four more hours of afternoon sales. Sylvia loves her work and the broken phone is keeping her from it. If necessary she will try to repair the phone herself.

Which of the following options would be in the best interest of Sylvia's firm to remedy the broken phone problem?

A.

Use Ed's Phone Repair Shop down the street. Ed can replace Sylvia's phone by 10:30 a.m. Ed will charge the firm $500. B. Assign Sylvia to a different project until her phone can be replaced with one from the firm's current inventory. Replacing the phone is handled by the night shift. C. Authorize Sylvia to buy a new phone during her lunch hour for$75 knowing she

can plug it in and have it working within a few minutes after she gets back to her desk at 1:00 p.m.

D.

Ask Sylvia to try to repair her phone herself. She will probably complete the repair by 2:00 p.m.; or maybe later.

#### SOLUTION

Solution : A

Solution Strategy-: Interpreting " in the firm's best interest" as in its best financial interest, the best answer from among those given will be the option which costs the firm the least.

Applying the strategy - : Interpreting " in the firm's best interest" - Interpreting the firm's best interest as meaning in its financial interest is based on two contextual elements: First that the question is set in the context of business transactions rather than other possible kinds of personal or social issues which might emerge in the workplace; and, second, that the details provided in the body of the question and its four answer choices are about time and money. Financial interests are not the only potential concerns Sylvia's firm might have. Good critical thinking not only enables one to recognize the multiplicity of possible interpretations, it also enables one to make a prudent choice among them. In this case, given all that is said and not said about Sylvia, her productivity, her work habits, and her job satisfaction, it would unreasonable to interpret " in the best interest of Sylvia's firm" as meaning something other than in its financial interest.
Focusing on costs, therefore, the reasoning tasks become analyzing each of the four options and drawing correct inferences as their respective financial impacts. The final critical thinking tasks are to compare the projected costs of each option and to select the one which would be the least costly to the firm. Along the way, the person with strong critical thinking skills would be monitoring his or her own reasoning, vigilant for possible errors in calculating the costs or errors in properly analyzing the details of each of the four choices. The person might reason as follows:

Option (A) would cost $700. The$500 paid to Ed's Phone Repair Shop and the $200 of lost profits Sylvia would otherwise have been expected to generate in the 30 minutes between 10:00 a.m. when the phone broke down and 10:30 a.m. when the replacement phone is in place. Option (B ) will cost nothing for the phone since the instrument is already in inventory. But it will cost the firm six hours of net revenue, which is$2400, because Sylvia will not be able to make calls until tomorrow.
Option (C) would cost $875 or a bit more. That figure comes from the two hours of lost time between 10:00 am and Noon, plus the$75 to reimburse Sylvia for the cost of the new phone, plus perhaps whatever little bit of additional profits would be lost in the few minutes it would take Sylvia to install that new phone her self.
Option (D) requires that Sylvia not have a working phone for four hours, not counting the noon hour which she spends at lunch, and thus it would cost the firm approximately \$1600 or perhaps more.

Answer--: Option A, for it, costs the firm the least financially.

Political scientist: As a political system, democracy does not promote political freedom. There are historical examples of democracies that ultimately resulted in some of the most oppressive societies. Likewise, there have been enlightened despotisms and oligarchies that have provided a remarkable level of political freedom to their subjects. The reasoning in the political scientist's argument is flawed because it

A. confuses the conditions necessary for political freedom with the conditions sufficient to bring It about
B. fail to consider that a substantial increase in the level of political freedom might cause a society to become more democratic
C. appeals to historical examples that are irrelevant to the causal claim being made
D. overlooks the possibility that democracy promotes political freedom without being necessary or sufficient by itself to produce it

#### SOLUTION

Solution : D

Answer (d)
The premise stated by the political scientist is that:
"As a political system, democracy does not promote political freedom”
Example given by him "There are historical examples of democracies that ultimately resulted in some of the most oppressive societies”
Here he talks about democracy leading to oppressive societies. But there can be a oppressive society which has political freedom.
So it is an incomplete example. Democracy can promote political freedom and at the same time create an oppressive society, as the argument does not provide any link between political freedom and oppressive society.

SO the argument overlooks the possibility that democracy promotes political freedom without being necessary or sufficient by itself to produce it (a democratic society as it can create an oppressive society).

A. This applies to material goods generally and therefore to the greater part of the present economic life of the world.
B. We may distinguish two sorts of goods, and two corresponding sorts of impulses.
C. The food and clothing of one man is not the food and clothing of another; if the supply is insufficient, what one man has is obtained at the expense of another man.
D. On the other hand, mental and spiritual goods do not belong to one man to the exclusion of another.
E. There are goods in regard to which individual possession is possible, and there are goods in which all can share alike.

A.

BECAD

B.

AEDBC

C.

BADEC

D.

AEDCB

#### SOLUTION

Solution : A

Option (a)
Sentence B is the best option for the first sentence as it initiates a theory. Sentence E then builds on it and tells us what are these types of goods. Sentence C then starts by citing example of one type among these two and sentence A generalizes this to apply to material goods. Sentence D then talks about the second type of goods. This makes choice (a) correct.

Shortcut-
Elimination- If you read the 5 sentences, observe that Sentence B talks of two types of goods and Sentence E elaborates on those two types. Hence, BE is a definite link. Directly eliminate option (b), (c), (d) and (e). Answer is option (a).

A. Germany has been less staunch, worrying more than the others that Iran may make good on its threat to leave the Non-Proliferation Treaty.
B. Yet Iran is exhausting the patience of even the friendlier European governments.
C. Britain and France have told Iran privately that it must fulfill its obligations to the IAEA, and also its original promise of a full suspension of enrichment-related activity.
D. But, ultimately, it agrees with its European partners that Iran must toe the line.
E. The reasons for the three countries' stance are not far to seek - An Iran that went nuclear despite repeated European overtures would make a mockery of European claims to be defter at diplomacy than heavy-handed America.

A.

BACDE

B.

AEDCB

C.

CDEAB

D.

BCADE

#### SOLUTION

Solution : D

Though a sentence beginning with 'yet' does not seem to be the right option as a first sentence, out of the other options it seems better and presents a line of thought. Sentence C is better than A in terms of demonstrating these reactions, especially since the sentence mentions "less staunch” in comparison to Britain and France. Sentence D qualifies Germany's stance and sentence E describes the reasoning behind this. This makes choice (d) correct.

Shortcut-
Elimination- If you read the 5 sentences, observe that Sentence A talks about Germany talking a more "Relaxed” stance while sentence D, which starts with "but” says that however, Germany still agrees with its European Partners... Hence "AD”
is a definite link. Directly eliminate option (a),(b),(c).
Answer is option (d).

A. But he is also thought to be indecisive and too much of a micro-manager.
B. He is intellectually curious, more comfortable in the spotlight than Miss Megawati, and widely viewed as a man of integrity who would be strong in times of crisis.
C. This is amply reflected in the understanding that he won the election on character, not ideology.
D. Though Indonesia's voters have now signaled that they want change at the top too, it is not clear that Mr. Yudhoyono can deliver on this mandate.
E. Besides these personality traits, his party worries that there is not much to separate him from Miss Megawati on policy.

A.

DBAEC

B.

AEDBC

C.

DEABC

D.

AEBDC

#### SOLUTION

Solution : A

Option (a)
Out of the options provided, the best option for the opening sentence is clearly sentence D (eliminate option (b) and (d)). Supporting sentences about why he is competent and doubts about certain personality traits follow. Sentence B does that and sentence A mentions what are the problem areas. Sentence E mentions the reasons for the unsure outcome, which are not attributed to his personality and sentence C describes an instance where this is demonstrated.
This makes choice (a) correct.

A. Indians are among the fastest growing immigrant groups in the US.
B. Mr. Ramanathan is one of them.
C. In a 0% unemployment economy, corporates are using everything to attract the right candidates.
D. According to a US Census Bureau, above 44% of Indians who work there hold managerial jobs.
E. He is among the thousands wooed right out of University campuses by companies.
F. It could range from an attractive signing bonus to personalized hand holders.

A.

FCDBEA

B.

AFDCBE

C.

ADBECF

D.

ADEBCF

#### SOLUTION

Solution : C

Option (c)
BE is a mandatory pair. "He” in (E) refers to "Mr. Ramanathan” in (B). Eliminate answer option (d)

Also, AD is another link. The "there” in D refers to "US” in A. Eliminate answer options (a) and (b). Hence, answer is option (c).
Additionally, CF is a mandatory pair; "everything” in (C) is further elaborated upon in (F).

A. What function do they serve?
B. This conceals its body from the eyes of hungry predators.
C. The traditional explanation is that the stripes act as a camouflage, which breaks up the shape of the animal.
D. Despite their vivid appearance in bright sunlight in an open grassland.
E. The zebras are well camouflaged at dawn and dusk.
F. The predators are active during these times when the light is dim.

A.

ABDCEF

B.

ACBDEF

C.

CEBDFA

D.

FCBEDA

#### SOLUTION

Solution : B

E is the connecting link to D's statement. In fact, it completes what statement D is saying. Eliminate options (a), (c) and (d), answer is option (b).
Alternatively, AC is a mandatory pair. (A) asks a question and (C) provides the answer. Also,"they” in (A), refers to "the stripes” in (C). EF is the other pair. (E) mentions "dawn and dusk” and (F) states "these times when the light is dim”.

A. We always think of returns before taking up anything.
B. Can we imagine what would happen if our mothers thought similarly?
C. None of us are as selfless as a mother is.
D. Most transactions of our lives are based on "give and take”.
E. Probably none of us would have been here.

A.

AEDCB

B.

DACBE

C.

DBCAE

D.

ACBDE

#### SOLUTION

Solution : B

Option (b)
DA is a mandatory pair. The "give and take” in (D) is explained in (A). BE is the
other mandatory pair. (B) raises a question and (E) answers it. If you can figure out that BE is a link, then you can directly eliminate options (a),(c) and (d).

1.Cubism was a new movement in art that revolutionized European painting and sculpture. Its emergence in France led to new movements in music and literature.
2.George Braque developed Cubic art with Pablo Picasso, and his paintings "Violence and Candlestick” and 'Women with a Guitar' give abstract reality. Objects look broken up, as the artist depicts the subject from multi-dimensional perspective.
3.Cubic art originated in the works of Paul Cezanne who treated the forms of Nature as if they were cones, spheres, and cylinders.

4.The Cubists were experimenters. They disintegrated the subject and depicted a new vision of reality in broken form. The evolution of Czech Cubism has to be understood in this perspective.

A.

IFFF

B.

FFII

C.

IFII

D.

JFIJ

#### SOLUTION

Solution : C

Statement 1 is based on inference that the emergence of Cubism led to the growth of other movements in music and literature. Statement 2 is based on facts. Statement 3 is inference based: Since the works of Paul Cezanne treated the forms of Nature as if they were cones, spheres, and cylinders, he must be the originator of cubism. Statement 4 is based on inference again, that the Czech cubism has to be understood in this perspective. Option: (c)

1.Mr. Krishna Menon, a popular minister of Nehru's era remained a mystery to the historians and the journalists; he was dubbed as an "intriguer” as his letters were intercepted, and his phone was subjected to checks.
2. Mr. Menon was a frequent visitor to the offices of the Communist Party in London, had connections with the communist leaders like Harry Pollit and Ted Bramley. But he was not a communist and Mr. Nehru knew his psychological flaws; controversial financial dealings; leftist associations; and a succession of love affairs.
3.After Independence, M15, the British Security Agency, discovered that Mr. Menon continued employment of several communists in the Indian High Commission. The M15 found that some workers were passing the secret information to the Communist Party but his pro-communist stance was not confirmed.

4 The MI5 complained to Mr. Nehru. But Nehru's relationship with Mr. Menon was a political compulsion.

A.

IFFI

B.

FFIJ

C.

JFFF

D.

IFFJ

#### SOLUTION

Solution : D

Statement I is an inferences based on the given premises about Mr. Krishna Menon who is dubbed as an "intriguer”. Statement 2 is based on facts. Statement 3 is also fact based. Statement 4 is clearly a judgment as it does not seem to be based on any premise given. Option: (d)

(1) It is really sad that the opposition to organized retail has claimed its first victim.
(2) Reliance Retail is likely to handover termination letters to its employees in UP as it prepares to formally exit the state.

(3) At present the company operates 20 stores in NOIDA and Ghaziabad. (4) Reliance is in fact resorting to pressure tactics on the government.

A.

JIFJ

B.

IIIJ

C.

FIFJ

D.

JIFI

#### SOLUTION

Solution : A

Ans(a) Statement 1 is a Judgement as it is an opinion expressing disapproval. Statement 2 is an inference based on the fact-exit from the state. Statement 3 is a verifiable fact. Statement 4 is again an opinion and hence a judgment.

The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, had turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity; it was costly before that.

A.

being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, had turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity; it was costly before that

B.

having been one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity, costly previously

C.

one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable, however costly previously, commodity

D.

one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity, whereas it had previously been costly

#### SOLUTION

Solution : D

The word "being" is unnecessary in the opening modifier "being one of the most significant developments . . ." Moreover, the past perfect verb "had turned" coupled with the simple past verb "was" reverses the chronological order of the events. The tenses run counter to the logic of the sentence by incorrectly suggesting that the invention of the cotton gin happened before the cotton cloth became expensive.
(A) This choice is incorrect as it repeats the original sentence.
(B) The words "having been" are unnecessary in the opening modifier. Moreover, the ending phrase "costly previously" is too concise; it fails to strike the contrast between the earlier and the later state of affairs.
(C) This choice interrupts the connection between the adjective "affordable" and the noun "commodity," making the sentence hard to follow. Also, the use of "however" changes the meaning: "however costly" implies that the cotton gin would have made cotton cloth affordable no matter how costly it was previously. In contrast, the original sentence only states that cotton cloth had previously been costly.
(D) CORRECT. The modifier "one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century" eliminates the unnecessary word "being." The simple past verb "turned" coupled with the past perfect "had previously been" correctly expresses the fact that cotton cloth "turned into an affordable commodity" after it "had previously been costly." The later past event uses the simple past tense, whereas the earlier past event uses the past perfect tense. Moreover, the conjunction "whereas" correctly expresses the neutral contrast between the earlier and the later state of affairs. The pronoun "it" refers unambiguously to the "cotton cloth."

The Diary of Anne Frank tells the true story of a young girl and her family that were hidden during the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands by a gentile Dutch couple, though they were eventually discovered.

A.

that were hidden during the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands by a gentile Dutch couple, though they were eventually discovered

B. that were hidden by a gentile Dutch couple during the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands, though they were eventually discovered
C.
whom a gentile Dutch couple hid during the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands but were eventually discovered
D.
who were hidden by a gentile Dutch couple during the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands but were eventually discovered

#### SOLUTION

Solution : D

The original sentence uses the relative pronoun "that" where "who" is preferred because the antecedent is a group of people. Also, the prepositional phrase "by a gentile Dutch couple" is placed in such a way as to suggest that the occupation was carried out by the couple. Finally, the pronoun "they" is ambiguous - it could refer to the family or to the couple.

(A) This choice is incorrect as it repeats the original sentence.
(B) This choice incorrectly uses the relative pronoun "that" to refer to a group of people. Additionally, the pronoun "they" is ambiguous - it could refer to the family or to the couple.
(C) The use of the object pronoun "whom" makes "a girl and her family" the object of the clause "a gentile Dutch couple hid;" however "a girl and her family" are the subject of the next clause "were eventually discovered." This is a mismatch.
(D) CORRECT. It correctly uses the pronoun "who" to refer to a girl and her family. Additionally, the phrase "by a gentile Dutch couple" is placed immediately after "who were hidden" to clarify the meaning. Finally, the ambiguous pronoun issue is avoided altogether.

Though some education experts claim that the low test scores of children in the city can be raised by hiring more teachers and an increase in the amount of funding for textbooks and other supplies, others insist that doing this cannot guarantee any improvement.

A.

by hiring more teachers and an increase in the amount of funding for textbooks and other supplies, others insist that doing this

B.

by hiring more teachers and increasing funding for textbooks and other supplies, others insist that doing so

C.

by a hiring of more teachers and increasing the amount of funding for textbooks and other supplies, other insist that doing so

D.

by hiring more teachers and increasing the amount of funding for textbooks and other supplies, others insist that doing this

#### SOLUTION

Solution : B

The original sentence contains several errors. First, the phrases "hiring more teachers” and "an increase in the amount of funding for books” should be, but are not, parallel. They should be parallel because both phrases play the same role in this sentence: we are told that scores can be raised by "hiring more teachers” and by "an increase in the amount...”. The phrases are not parallel because "hiring more teachers” is a participial phrase, whereas "an increase...” is a noun phrase. Second, "doing this" is incorrect. A verb phrase cannot be replaced by a pronoun such as "this" or "it". Instead, it must be replaced by "so". For example, "I enjoy swimming at night, but doing so is dangerous" is preferable to "I enjoy swimming at night, but doing it is dangerous." Finally, the "amount of funding" is somewhat wordy and could be replaced by the more concise "funding."

(A) This choice is incorrect as it repeats the original sentence.
(B) CORRECT. It contains two parallel participial phrases, "hiring more teachers" and "increasing funding for textbooks and other supplies." Additionally "doing so" correctly replaces "doing this" and the concise "funding" is used in place of "amount of funding".
(C) The phrase "a hiring of more teachers” contains a word with an -ing ending, so it might seem as if "a hiring of more teachers” is a participial phrase like "increasing the amount of funding”. However, appearances are deceptive in this case. Notice that the word "hiring” is preceded by the article "a.” This article is a signal that the word "hiring” is being used as a noun, just as "hanging” is a noun in the sentence "I witnessed a hanging this morning.” So this answer choice fails to create parallelism: the noun phrase "a hiring of more teachers” is not parallel to the participial phrase "increasing the amount of funding for textbooks and other supplies.” Another problem with this answer choice is that "amount of funding” is wordy compared to "funding.”
(D) This choice incorrectly uses "doing this" instead of "doing so" to refer back to the participial phrase "hiring . . ." Additionally, "amount of funding" is wordy.

A. They were all shocked at his failure in the competition.
B. He is too important for tolerating any delay.
C. There are not many men who are so famous that they are frequently referred to by their short names only.
D. The small child does whatever his father does.
___

#### SOLUTION

Solution :

Sentence B should not contain the continuous form of the verb 'tolerating'. It should read 'He is too important to tolerate any delay'. In sentence C, the phrase 'short names' is inappropriate. It should be 'initials' instead. Famous men are frequently referred by their initials.

Sentences A and D are correct.

Enter the sentence code that is/are grammatically correct in alphabetical order.

A. The population of Tokyo is greater than that of any other town in the world.
B. In addition to enhanced reputations through strategic use of philanthropy, companies are sponsoring social initiatives to open new markets.
C. The police has so far succeeded in recovering only a part of the stolen property.
D. The intruder stood quietly for a few moments.
___

#### SOLUTION

Solution : Sentence B should read as 'In addition to enhancing their reputation through.......' as the second part of the sentence after comma is in continuous tense. The other three sentences are correct.

A. Maria unnecessarily picked up a quarrel with Rani and left the party hurried.
B. Acquisition of certain specific skills can be facilitated by general awareness, education to novel situations.
C. He confidentially asked the crowd if they thought he was right and the crowd shoutedthat they did.
D. Why should the candidates be afraid of English Language is not clear.

___

#### SOLUTION

Solution :

'Pick up' is used in situations where one picks an object or a skill. In sentence A, the correct term should be 'picked' instead of 'picked up'. In sentence D, the subject (Candidates) should follow the question word ( Why ) rather than the auxillary verb 'should'. So the correct sentence is 'Why the candidates should be afraid.....'.
Sentences B and C are correct.

Greece has both natural and cultural assets. But it has lacked in infrastructure -- be it inadequate, or unsuitable public transport from the airport, or poor service at a restaurant, or in a shop. Representatives from across the sector of the Greek tourism industry -- hoteliers, restaurant owners, travel agents, tour bus operators, tour guides, ferry companies, and so on -- have long touted the problems they have faced. From its first day in government, the New Democracy indicated its intention to address these problems. And in the first few months it has been in power, it has already gone beyond simply stating its intentions and has actually begun to do something.

A.

Greece is a major tourist attraction albeit plagued by lack of basic transportation facilities and poor services, which are being addressed by the new order.

B.

The fact that the basic amenities are lacking is detrimental to tourism.

C.

The New Democracy is alive to the problems being faced by the tourism industry and has already initiated steps to rectify them.

D.

Greece is destination of Olympics regardless of its infrastructural inadequacies.

#### SOLUTION

Solution : A

option (a), (a) is obviously the correct answer. It is an exact restatement of what is stated in the paragraph. (b) is an isolated statement, (c) is only partially complete, it may not be pertinent to Greece, and (d) is a fact not mentioned in the paragraph.

If one wishes to form a true estimate of the full grandeur of religion, one must keep in mind what it undertakes to do for men. It gives them information about the source and origin of the universe, it assures them of protection and final happiness amid the changing vicissitudes of life, and it guides their thoughts and actions by means of precepts which are backed by the whole force of its authority. It fulfils, therefore, three functions. In the first place, it satisfies man's desire for knowledge; it is here doing the same thing that science attempts to accomplish by its own methods, and here, therefore, enters into rivalry with it. It is to the second function that it performs that religion no doubt owes the greater part of its influence. In so far as religion brushes away man's fear of the dangers and vicissitudes of life, in so far as it assures them of a happy ending, and comforts them in their misfortunes, science cannot compete with it.

A. Religion is incomparable.
B. Religion scores over science as far as the emotional quotient goes.
C. Man in his quest for knowledge prefers science and scientific methods.
D. Science cannot provide a security cover.

#### SOLUTION

Solution : B

option (b), (b) is correct, it carries the crux of the paragraph. Refer to the part religion no doubt owes the greater part of its influence.... science cannot compete with it. (d)is doubtful, security is an ambiguous term. (c) contradicts information given in the paragraph. (a) is limited as the relative factor is not stated in the paragraph.

Directions for question 100:Each question below consists of six sentences denoted by 1, A, B, C, D, and 6. Sentences 1 and 6 are respectively the first and the last sentences of a paragraph. Sentences A, B, C and D come in between sentences 1 and 6 but not necessarily in that order. From the choices select the correct arrangement of ABCD to form a logically coherent paragraph.

1.  Clinical trials have limitations beyond their exorbitant costs and the years or decades it takes them to provide meaningful results.
A.  Randomly subjecting thousands of individuals to second-hand tobacco smoke, pollutants or potentially noxious trans fats presents obvious ethical dilemmas.
B.  Clinical trials invariably enroll subjects who are relatively healthy, who are motivated to volunteer and will show up regularly for treatments and checkups.
C.  They can rarely be used, for instance, to study suspected harmful effects.
D.  And even when these trials are done to study the benefits of a particular intervention, it's rarely clear how the results apply to the public at large or to any specific patient.
6.  Randomized trials are very good for showing that a drug does what the pharmaceutical company says it does but not very good for telling you how big the benefit really is and whatare the harms in typical people.

A.

ABCD

B.

BADC

C.

CADB

D.

DCBA

#### SOLUTION

Solution : C

Sentence B cannot follow A because both of them start with the phrase 'clinical trials', which is redundant.A pronoun should have replaced the subject 'clinical trials' in order to make the flow coherent.So [b] and [e] can be negated.CD is not a valid link - C precisely states the drawback of using clinical trials' whereas D goes off on a tangent.Hence, [a] is also negated.Sentence A ends on a negative note regarding the clinical trials whereas sentence 6 begins on a positive note about the trials and again goes on to discuss the negative aspects.Moreover, a BA link also cannot be established - B mentions the health of the subjects whereasAmentions a different issue regarding the subjects (ethical dilemmas associated with trials conducted on them).Therefore, [d] can be negated.Ccan follow A because it states what other problem is associated with clinical trials and it should be followed by A which gives some examples. D should follow A because of the connecting phrase 'and even when'.So the proper sequenceis CADB.

SHORTCUT
Look at sentence 1
"Clinical trials have limitations beyond their exorbitant costs and the years or decades it takes them to provide meaningful results.”
We need to look for a sentence which lets us look at some more limitations. Only sentence C fits the bill. Only one option starts C. Hence, answer is option (c)