Free Verbal Practice Test - CAT
Among all the apprehensions that Mr. Goran Lindblad expresses against communism, which one gets admitted, although indirectly, by the author?
There is nostalgia for communist ideology even if communism has been abandoned by most European nations
Notions of social justice inherent in communist ideology appeal to the critics of existing systems.
Communist regimes were totalitarian and marked by brutalities and large scale violence.
The existing economic order is wrongly viewed as imperialistic by proponents of communism
Solution : C
The first paragraph lists a number of points about which the author expressed his apprehensions against communism. However, the line, “the Council of Europe‘s parliamentary assembly voted to condemn the crimes of totalitarian communist regimes”, indirectly gives an idea about how the author feels about communism. The author thinks that the communist regime is ‘totalitarian’ and this is only given indirectly. The part about nostalgia is explicitly indicated in his list of apprehensions. Hence, option (a) cannot be the answer. Options (b) and (d) are irrelevant here. Hence, option (c) is the correct answer.
What, according to the author, is the real reason for a renewed attack against communism?
Disguising the unintended consequences of the current economic order such as social injustice and environmental crisis.
Idealizing the existing ideology of global capitalism.
Making communism a generic representative of all historical atrocities, especially those perpetrated by the European imperialists.
Communism still survives, in bits and pieces, in the minds and hearts of people.
Solution : D
It is a close call between options (c) and (d). Option (d) is the better one as the entire paragraph talks about the renewed attack against the communists. Option (c) is mentioned in the next paragraph only. Option (a) goes outside the scope of the passage. Option (b) goes against the idea given in the passage. Hence option (d) is the correct answer.
The author cites examples of atrocities perpetrated by European colonial regimes in order to
Compare the atrocities committed by colonial regimes with those of communist regimes.
Prove that the atrocities committed by colonial regimes were more than those of communist regimes.
Prove that, ideologically, communism was much better than colonialism and Nazism.
Neutralize the arguments of Mr. Lindblad and to point out that the atrocities committed by colonial regimes were more than those of communist regimes.
Neutralize the arguments of Mr. Lindblad and to argue that one needs to go beyond and look at the motives of these regimes.
Solution : D
The author cites examples of the atrocities committed by colonial regimes in order to show that the colonialists were worse than the communists and that Mr. Lindblad's theory about fighting against the communists could be validated if they had raised a word against the atrocities of the colonialists as well. But this was not the case. He says that the crimes done by the communists were not as severe as those by the colonialists. This is best expressed by option (d). Option (a) is partially correct but his main aim is to neutralize Lindblad's statements and not just compare. Options (b) and (c) are mentioned in the passage but are not correct in this context. Option (e) talks about finding motives which is out of the scope of the passage.
Why, according to the author, is Nazism closer to colonialism than it is to communism?
Both colonialism and Nazism were examples of tyranny of one race over another.
The genocides committed by the colonial and the Nazi regimes were of similar magnitude.
Several ideas of the Nazi regime were directly imported from colonial regimes.
Both colonialism and Nazism are based on the principles of imperialism.
Solution : A
The answer is evident from the line “there is an intimate link between colonialism and Nazism. The terms ‘lebensraum’ and ‘konzentrationslager’ were both first used by the German colonial regime in South-West Africa (now Namibia), which committed genocide against the Herero and Nama peoples and bequeathed its ideas and personnel directly to the Nazi party.” It shows how Nazism committed atrocities against certain races. The case was similar with colonialists as can be seen from the lines “Around 10 million Congolese died as a result of Belgian forced labour and mass murder in the early twentieth century; tens of millions perished in avoidable or enforced famines in British-ruled India; up to a million Algerians died in their war for independence, while controversy now rages in France about a new law requiring teacher to put a positive spin on colonial history. Comparable atrocities were carried out by all European colonialists, but not a word of condemnation from the Council of Europe. Presumably, European lives count for more”. This shows the link between colonialism and Nazism which is best expressed by option (a).
Which of the following cannot be inferred as a compelling reason for the silence of the Council of Europe on colonial atrocities?
The Council of Europe being dominated by erstwhile colonialists.
Generating support for condemning communist ideology.
Unwillingness to antagonize allies by raking up an embarrassing past.
Greater value seemingly placed on European lives.
Solution : D
The 5th paragraph of the passage explains the atrocities committed by the European Colonialists.
Refer to the last line...,”Presumably, European lives count for more”. This explains that option (d) is the right answer choice.
According to the passage, which of the following best represents the factor that has been cited by the author in the context of Rwanda and Haiti?
Various ethnic groups competing for land and other resources
Various ethnic groups competing for limited land resources
Various ethnic groups fighting with each other
Various ethnic groups competing for political power
Solution : A
The question asks for the factor best denoting the case of Rwanda and Haiti.
From the second paragraph, “…one strand consisted of population growth outstripping available resources: a dilemma similar to the one foreseen by Thomas Malthus in 1798 and being played out today in Rwanda, Haiti, and elsewhere. As the archaeologist David Webster succinctly puts it, "Too many farmers grew too many crops on too much of the landscape. Compounding that mismatch between population and resources was the second strand: the effects of deforestation and hillside erosion, which caused a decrease in the amount of useable farmland at a time when more rather than less farmland was needed, and possibly exacerbated by an anthropogenic drought resulting from deforestation, by soil nutrient depletion and other soil problems, and by the struggle to prevent bracken ferns from overrunning the fields”.
The keywords are the words "limited”, "land" and "resources”. The second strand continues in the same vein and says that land and resources were limited. Combining the two, option (a) is the right answer option. Option (b) talks about “land resources” but does not mention other resources which were also scarce. Options (c) states" ethnic groups fighting with each other” but there is no mention of fighting in the passage. Option (d) mentions "ethnic groups competing for political power". There is no mention of this in the passage as well. Hence option (a) is the correct answer.
By an anthropogenic drought, the author means:
a drought caused by lack of rains.
a drought caused due to deforestation
a drought caused by failure to prevent bracken ferns from overrunning the fields.
a drought caused by actions of human beings.
Solution : D
This is essentially a vocabulary question. The answer can be guessed from the context the word is used in. Anthropogenic means "caused or produced by humans”.
From the second paragraph, “…anthropogenic drought resulting from deforestation, by soil nutrient depletion and other soil problems, and by the struggle to prevent bracken ferns from overrunning the fields.”Option (a) is incorrect because lack of rain cannot be attributed to human intervention. Options (b) and (c) are incorrect because they are reasons to the causes of the drought and why the drought was anthropogenic. Hence they cannot be the meaning of the word itself. Option (d) means the same as anthropogenic. Deforestation and soil nutrient depletion can only be caused by humans.
According to the passage, the drought at the time of Maya collapse had a different impact compared to the droughts earlier because:
the Maya kings continue to be extravagant when common people were suffering.
it happened when the Maya population had occupied all available land suited for agriculture.
it was followed by internecine warfare among Mayans.
irreversible environmental degradation led to this drought.
Solution : B
Option (a) is the fifth strand according to the passage, but there is nothing to indicate that had a different impact compared to earlier droughts. Option (c) contradicts the third paragraph, “Maya warfare, already endemic, peaked just before the collapse”. Option (d) is incorrect because “the third strand consisted of increased fighting, as more and more people fought over fewer resources.” This implies that environmental degradation had nothing to do with this particular drought.
The third paragraph mentions “at the time of previous droughts, there were still uninhabited parts of the Maya landscape, and people at a site affected by drought could save themselves by moving to another site. However, by the time of the Classic collapse the landscape was now full, there was no useful unoccupied land in the vicinity on which to begin anew, and the whole population could not be accommodated in the few areas that continued to have reliable water supplies.” Hence option (b) is the correct answer.
According to the author, why is it difficult to explain the reasons for Maya collapse?
Copan inhabitants destroyed all records of that period.
The constant deforestation and hillside erosion have wiped out all traces of the Maya kingdom.
It has not been possible to ascertain which of the factors best explains as to why the Maya civilization collapsed.
At least five million people were crammed into a small area.
Solution : C
The passage does not talk about Copan inhabitants destroying the records. Hence option (a) is eliminated. The first paragraph mentions that “detailed archaeological studies are available for some Maya sites” which contradicts option (b). Option (d) is mentioned in the third paragraph; however, it does not explain the reasons for Maya collapse.
The passage mentions five possible strands for the Maya collapse. The passage states, “I acknowledge, however, that Maya archaeologists still disagree vigorously among themselves - in part, because the different strands evidently varied in importance among different parts of the Maya realm; because detailed archaeological studies are available for only some Maya sites; and because it remains puzzling why most of the Maya heartland remained nearly empty of population and failed to recover after the collapse and after re-growth of forests”. The idea given in this paragraph is represented in option (c) and it is the correct answer.
Which factor has not been cited as one of the factors causing the collapse of Maya society?
Environmental degradation due to excess population
Social collapse due to excess population
Increased warfare among Maya people
Obsession of Maya population with their own short-term concerns.
Solution : D
The second paragraph states “…population growth outstripping available resources”. This led to deforestation and soil erosion which ultimately led to environmental degradation. This eliminates option (a). The last paragraph states “…the Maya peak population numbers were followed swiftly by political and social collapse”. This eliminates option (b). Option (c) is also mentioned in the passage. The third paragraph states “the third strand consisted of increased fighting, as more and more people fought over fewer resources. Maya warfare, already endemic, peaked just before the collapse.” Option (d) is not mentioned in the passage. The fourth paragraph does state “short-term concerns of the kings and the nobles” but not about the general "Maya population”. Hence, option (d) is the correct answer.
The central issue before the court was how far the regulatory agencies should go in requiring better working conditions in factories.
In requiring better working conditions in factories.
In their requirement that factories should have better working conditions.
As far as requiring that factories should have better working conditions.
To require factories to have better working conditions.
Solution : A
This was a close call between (a) and (d).
Let us look at the one example.
(a) I want to know how far you will go in helping me.
(b) I want to know how far you will go to help me.
"In helping me” means how much you will help me in the process.
"to help me" means how much you will help me to start the process.
In the question the process has already started. So we need help in the process and not to start the process. So the answer is (a).
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a condition characterized by an inability to focus on any topic for a prolonged period of time, and is especially common among children five to ten years old. A recent study has shown that 85 percent of seven year old children with ADD watch, on average, more than five hours of television a day. It is therefore very likely that Ed, age seven, has ADD, since he watched roughly six hours of television a day. The argument above is flawed because it
cites as a direct casual mechanism a factor that may only be a partial cause of the condition in question.
fails to indicate the chances of having ADD among seven year old children who watch more than five hours of television a day.
limits the description of the symptoms of ADD to an inability to focus for a prolonged period of time
fails to consider the possibility that Ed may be among the 15 percent of children who do not watch more than five hours of television a day.
Solution : B
The author's conclusion pops up at the end, when she states that Ed is likely to have ADD because he watches television a lot and is seven. They key piece of evidence is the recent study cited by the author that states that 85% of seven year olds with ADD watch more than five hours of television per day. The study thus discusses only the television-watching habits of seven year olds who have ADD. The author's conclusion is flawed because it makes a conclusion about a seven year old television watcher based on a study about seven year old television watchers with ADD. In other words, there's a scope shift between the evidence and the conclusion. The author errs in accepting the survey as relevant to Ed. (B) expresses this flaw most clearly; In order to make conclusions about Ed, and whether he might have ADD, the author must come up with evidence that pertains to Ed, since the original evidence does not. She needs a statistic that states the likelihood that a seven year old who watches more than five hours of TV a day would have ADD. The evidence provided sounds like that, and (B) captures the gist of the author's mistake. (B) wins.
is confusing, but the argument isn't really about degrees of causation. The author doesn't suggest that age and television-watchingcause a child to contract ADD, but that those factors generally appear with the disorder. (A) distorts the author's conclusion by suggesting that it says that Ed's television-watching has caused him to contract ADD, but the author never suggests this.
(C) Yes, the description of ADD symptoms is limited in the manner cited in (C), but that's not a problem.
Perhaps some doctors might disagree with the author's definition, but its validity is not the issue at
the heart of this argument. Rather, the argument's concerned with Ed's chances of having ADD based
on a particular study.
(D) directly contradicts the stimulus, were we learn that Ed does actually watch more than five hours of
television per day. You may also have noticed that the 15% figure is bogus - it's derived from the 85%
figure in the stimulus, but that figure refers to the percentage of children with ADD who watch more
than five hours of TV a day. Inferably, we can therefore say that 15% of children with ADD do not
watch more than five hours of TV a day, but we can't turn this into 15% of children in general who
don't watch more than five hours, as (D) attempts to do.
(E) again distorts the argument, which never suggests that television watching causes ADD. Since no
causality is mentioned, we can only assume that the data represents a correlation.
Sarrin monks practice the Pran meditation technique only when extremely damaging weather conditions confront the farming villages surrounding Sarrin monasteries. Pran meditation is a more highly disciplined form of the ritual meditation that the monks practice daily, and involves unique practices such as isolation and fasting. Which of the following statements below does NOT follow logically from the passage above?
Pran meditation among Sarrin monks does not take place according to a precisely regulated schedule.
The ritual meditation that a typical Sarrin monk practices daily does not take place in an atmosphere of isolation.
Monks practice some types of meditation in response to threats faced by the local population.
The ritual meditation that Sarrin monks practice daily is largely undisciplined.
Solution : D
Here's our "Odd-Man-Out” example, and since we need to find the one statement that isn't inferred, we should keep careful track of the boundaries round the argument. That way we'll be better prepared to spot what isn't there. The author begins by noting that the Sarrin monks use Pran meditation only in case of severe weather. The author then explains the differences between Pran meditation and Ritual meditation. Understanding the differences will likely be key to getting this question right. Pran meditation is different from ritual meditation because it's more highly disciplined and uniquely involves isolation and fasting. Thus there are three specific ways in which Pran meditation is different from ritual meditation. Let's go to the choices.
The monks practice Pran meditation only when there's severe weather and, since weather isn't precisely scheduled, then Pran meditation must not be precisely scheduled either. Sure, that's an inference.
If Pran meditation involves the unique practice of isolation, then no other meditation, including ritual meditation, involves isolation. This is therefore also inferable from the passage.
Some means "one or more”, so since the monks practice Pran meditation in response to local weather threats, then some types of meditation do in fact exist as a response to local threats.
The correct option is D
Just because it's less disciplined does not imply NO discipline.
Candidate for Mayor: My opponent argues that the best way to increase the city's tax revenues is to double the tax on rental cars so that non-residents provide the bulk of the additional income. This plan is unethical because it constitutes taxation without representation: we should not excessively tax those who cannot vote on the plan. Moreover, if car rental prices are too high in our city, people may simply rent cars in neighboring cities to avoid the tax surcharge. The candidate responds to her opponent's plan by
Introducing a moral quandary that cannot be resolved without additional data.
Arguing for an alternate strategy by which to accomplish the declared objective.
Implying that the plan may result in the opposite of the intended effect.
Demonstrating that her opponent's plan would fail to achieve its goal.
Solution : C
We are asked to analyze the candidate's argument: what reasoning does she employ in her response to the opponent's plan? The opponent proposes a way to increase tax revenues. The candidate provides two reasons for rejecting the plan: first, the plan is morally wrong, and, second, it may not even work because people may rent cars in other cities instead. The correct answer must describe one or both of these objections.
(A) The candidate does introduce a moral concern, but does not present it as a quandary that cannot be solved without more data. In fact, the candidate takes a very specific stand, claiming unequivocally that the plan is morally wrong.
(B) The candidate does not argue for, or even mention, an alternate strategy by which to raise the city's tax revenues.
(C) CORRECT. The candidate suggests, via her second objection, that people might choose to rent cars in neighboring cities to avoid the higher tax. If this occurred, it could potentially reduce the number of car rentals in the candidate's city, with the result that the city's tax revenues from this source would decrease - the opposite of the opponent's intended goal.
(D) In her second objection, the candidate offers a reason whythe plan might not work as intended. Her objection relies on a conjecture about how people would behave. It does not, therefore,demonstrate(i.e.,prove) that the plan would fail.
A. Large reductions in the ozone layer, which sits about 15-30 km above the Earth, take place each- winter over the Polar regions, especially the Antarctic, as low temperatures allow the formation of stratospheric clouds that assist chemical reactions breaking down ozone.
B. Industrial chemicals containing chlorine and bromine have been blamed for thinning the layer because they attack the ozone molecules, making them to break apart.
C. Many an offending chemicals have now been banned.
D. It will still take several decades before these substances have disappeared from the atmosphere.
B & D
A & D
A & C
Solution : C
Statements B and C are incorrect. Statement B is incorrect because 'to break apart' is an incorrect idiom. It should be "making them break apart”- the verb 'make' is not followed by an infinitive (to+verb).
Statement C is incorrect because of 'many an offending chemicals'. The correct versions will be 'many offending chemicals (have)' or many an offending chemical (has)'. This eliminates options (b) and (d).
Statements A and D are both correct.
Which of the following statement/statements is/are correct?
A. When virtuoso teams begin their work, individuals are in and group consensus is out.
B. As project progresses, however, the individual stars harness themselves to the product of the group.
C. Sooner or later, the members break through their own egocentrism and become a plurality with single-minded focus on the goal.
D. In short, they morph into a powerful team with a shared identity.
A & C
A & D
A, B & D
A,C & D
Solution : B
Statements B and C are incorrect.
Statement B is incorrect because 'As project progresses' should be corrected to "As the project progresses...” The (definite or indefinite) article is required as a determiner. Statement C is incorrect in the phrase 'a plurality with single-minded focus' - should be corrected to "a plurality with a single-minded focus...” The noun 'focus' needs a determiner (definite/indefinite article). Since statements B and C are incorrect, options (a), (c) and (d) are eliminated.
A. What function do they serve?
B. This conceals its body from the eyes of hungry predators.
C. The traditional explanation is that the stripes act as a camouflage, which break up the shape of the animal.
D. Despite their vivid appearance in bright sunlight in an open grassland.
E. The zebras are well camouflaged at dawn and dusk.
F. The predators are active during these times when the light is dim.
Solution : B
There is a clear ACB link in the given statements. A asks a question which C answers This we can get from the word "traditional explanation” in C. The link between the words "camouflage” in C and "conceal” in B gives us the link CB. This helps us mark option (b) as the answer. Verify the rest of the statements to make sure they make logical sense. DE is a continuous statement, describing the zebra's appearance during sunlight and when it's dim. F continues with the thought when the light is dim. Hence option (b) is the correct answer.
A. Indians are among the fastest growing immigrant groups in the US.
B. Mr. Ramanathan is one of them.
C. In a 0% unemployment economy, corporates are using everything to attract the right candidates.
D. According to a US Census Bureau, above 44% of Indians who work there hold managerial jobs.
E. He is among the thousands wooed right out of University campuses by companies.
F. It could range from an attractive signing bonus to personalized hand holders.
Solution : C
B could either follow A or D. "Them” in B could wither mean "Indians” as in A or "44% Indians” as in D. But we can see that "there” in D refers to "US” in A. Hence D follows A and B follows D. this gives us the link ADB. The "he” in F refers to MR. Ramanathan. Hence E follows B. And we can see that F follows C logically. Hence the correct option is option (c).
1. The Indian High Commission in London is likely to serve the legal notice on Christie's to stop its auction on July three, sources said. 2. The copyright of the manuscript is with the Ahmedabad-based Navjiwan Trust. 3. Gandhiji willed all his letters, writings and books to the trust, they pointed out. 4. "As the ownership of the manuscript is with the Trust, it cannot belong to private collector, the auction house has no right to sell it in these circumstances,” the sources added
Solution : B
Sentence 1 is clearly a judgment, which can be deduced from the word 'likely' an indicator of probable action in future. Sentences 2 and 3 are clearly facts, since they are open to verification. Sentence 4 shows a cause-effect relationship, a conclusion drawn about the unknown (no right to sell the manuscript), on the basis of the known (the ownership of the manuscript). Thus we can conclude that option (b) is the answer.
1. Some places on earth are simply too big to photograph, the Grand Canyon, the great wall, Egypt's Valley of the Kings. 2. The monuments don't fit in any frame, they were made - by god or man - to overwhelm. 3. You can visit them, snap some shots but something is missing when you get back home. 4. Likewise, no one can capture a country with millions of independently minded and moving pieces.
Solution : D
option (d). Sentence 1 is a fact - everyone would agree that the Grand Canyon or the Great Wall of China is too big to be captured in a photograph.
Sentence 2 is a Judgment - the author's contention that they were made 'to overwhelm' is open to question.
Sentence 3 is a Judgment - that something is missing in the photo is somebody's opinion - someone else may feel that the photo captures the essence of the scene.
Sentence 4 is an Inference - so no one can capture ... is a conclusion based on what has been said earlier about the inability to capture things in a snap
Although about 99 percent of the more than 50 million Turks are Muslims, the republic founded by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk in 1923 is resolutely secular.
Although about 99 percent of the more than 50 million
Although about 99 percent of over 50 million of the
Although about 99 percent of more than 50 million
Despite the fact that about 99 percent of more than 50 million
Solution : A
If we use "the," we are saying that there are only 50 million Turks in the whole world; if we don't use "the," we are saying that there are possibly more than 50 million Turks in the world.
So the answer is option (a).
The inhabitants of Somalia greeted the measures outlawing polygamy with a similar defiance that welcomed the prohibition of alcohol in the United States in the nineteen twenties.
a similar defiance that welcomed
a similar defiance which welcomed
a similar defiance to what welcomed
a defiance similar to that which welcomed
Solution : D
In English, instead of saying something like "that that" we say "that which."
'The number we recorded this week is greater than that which we recorded last week' is preferable to 'The number we recorded this week is greater than that that we recorded last week'.
In this sentence 'The number we recorded this week is greater than that which we recorded last week'
that = number and
which = number
Notice that this sentence equals 'The number we recorded this week is greater than the number that we recorded last week'.
So in our sentence here, we want to say:
The inhabitants of Somalia greeted the measures outlawing polygamy with a defiance that was similar to the defiance that welcomed the prohibition of alcohol in the United States in the nineteen-twenties.
According to the author, Shaw's didacticism was unusual in that it was characterized by:
Solution : B
This is a data based question where the answer has to be got by running through the entire passage. Refer to the last but 3rd line of the passage “Shaw, who has the courage of his historicism” and you will get the correct answer (b).
It can be inferred from the passage that Shaw would probably agree with all of the following statements about Shakespeare EXCEPT:
He wrote out of a moral passion.
He was the most profound and original thinker of his epoch.
He was a greater artist than Marlowe.
His Lear gives full and final form to the philosophy of his age.
Solution : B
This is really a tough question. It is an inference question and also an ‘except’ question.
First we need to find out which are the options Shaw would probably agree.
Option (a) : look at the 4th line of the passage “the artist writes out of moral passion”.
Shakespeare is an artist. So Shaw would agree to (a).
Option (c) : Look at these lines in the second paragraph -
“that the first great artist who comes along after a renewal gives to the new philosophy full and final form, that subsequent artists, though even more gifted, can do nothing but refine upon the master without matching him. Shaw, whose essential modesty is as disarming as his pose of vanity is disconcerting, assigns to himself the role, not of the master, but of the pioneer, the role of a Marlowe rather than of a Shakespeare”
He indirectly points out that Marlowe is a pioneer and Shakespeare is a master. He also says that the master cannot be matched. So he will agree to option (c).
Option (d): Look at these lines in the last paragraph “No one, says Shaw, will ever write a better tragedy than Lear”
So Shaw will agree to option (d) also.
So option (b) is the correct answer.
Which of the following does the author cite as a contradiction in Shaw?
Whereas he pretended to be vain, he was actually modest.
Although he insisted that true art springs from moral passion, he rejected the notion that morals do not change.
He considered himself to be the pioneer of a new philosophy, but he hoped his audiences would eventually adopt his point of view.
On the one hand, he held that ideas are a most important part of a work of art; on the other hand, he believed that ideas go out of date.
Solution : A
Refer to these lines in the second paragraph “Shaw, whose essential modesty is as disarming as his pose of vanity is disconcerting”.
The ideas attributed to Shaw in the passage suggest that he would most likely agree with which of the following statements?
A play cannot be comprehended fully without some knowledge and imaginative understanding of its context.
A great music drama like Der Ring des Nibelungen springs from a love of beauty, not from a love of art.
Morality is immutable; it is not something to be discussed and worked out.
Don Giovanni is a masterpiece because it is as relevant today as it was when it was created.
Solution : A
This is another tough question. This is a data based question where the answer has to be got by running through the entire passage.
Let us use process of elimination to choose the correct answer.
Option (b) - Look at these lines “His teaching is that beauty is a by-product of other activity”. He says that ‘Beauty is a by-product of other activities’. But this option says that the ‘Drama is a product of beauty’.
So Shaw need not agree to this option.
Option (c) - “Morality is immutable”. This statement is correct.
But the second half of the option “it is not something to be discussed and worked out” is not correct. Look at these lines in the last paragraph “Shaw, who has the courage of his historicism, consistently withstands the view that moral problems do not change”. Shaw himself has discussed regarding these views.
So Shaw need not agree to this option.
Option (d): Look at these lines in second paragraph -
“it follows that even the best works of art go out of date in some important aspects and that the generally held view that great works are in all respects eternal is not shared by Shaw”.
So Shaw need not agree to this option.
Option (a) is therefore correct. It is supported by the following lines in the first paragraph “that the artist writes out of moral passion (in forms varying from political conviction to religious zeal)”.
Which one of the following most accurately states the central idea of the passage?
Abrams argues that historical sociology rejects the claims of sociologists who assert that the sociological concept of structuring cannot be applied to the interactions between individuals and history.
Abrams argues that historical sociology assumes that, despite the views of sociologists to the contrary, history influences the social contingencies that affect individuals.
Abrams argues that historical sociology demonstrates that, despite the views of sociologists to the contrary, social structures both influence and are influenced by the events of history.
Abrams describes historical sociology as a discipline that unites two approaches taken by sociologists to studying the formation of societies and applies the resulting combined approach to the study of history.
Solution : D
This is a main theme question.
The first half of the option “Abrams describes historical sociology as a discipline that unites two approaches taken by sociologists to studying the formation of societies” is the summary of the first paragraph and the second half of the option is the summary of the second and third paragraph.
Look at these lines in the first paragraph -
“sociologists’ approach to the subject is usually to focus on only one of these forms of influence to the exclusion of the other”.
The author states that the sociologist always focused only on one of the forms. But the author never states that the views of the sociologist were contrary to the form.
So option (b) and (c) are wrong.
Given the passage's argument, which one of the following sentences most logically completes the last paragraph?
Only if they adhere to this structure, Abrams believes, can historical sociologists conclude with any certainty that the events that constitute the historical record are influenced by the actions of individuals
Only if they adhere to this structure, Abrams believes, will historical sociologists be able to counter the standard sociological assumption that there is very little connection between history and individual agency.
By adhering to this structure, Abrams believes, historical sociologists can shed light on issues that traditional sociologists have chosen to ignore in their one-sided approaches to the formation of societies.
By adhering to this structure, Abrams believes, historical sociologists will be able to better portray the complex connections between human agency and history.
Solution : D
This is an application question. In order to answer this question, refer to the last paragraph.
“In order to capture the various facets of this mutual interaction, Abrams recommends a fourfold structure to which he believes the investigations of historical sociologists should conform”. You need to align your answer to the last paragraph only and especially the above lines. In these lines he is talking about interaction between humans and history. So the answer is option (d).
Which one of the following is most analogous to the ideal work of a historical sociologist as outlined by Abrams?
In a report on the enactment of a bill into law, a journalist explains why the need for the bill arose, sketches the biography of the principal legislator who wrote the bill, and ponders the effect that the bill’s enactment will have both one society and on the legislator’s career.
In a consultation with a patient, a doctor reviews the patient’s medical history, suggests possible reasons for the patient’s current condition, and recommends steps that the patient should take in the future to ensure that the condition improves or at least does not get any worse.
In a presentation to stockholders, a corporation’s chief executive officer describes the corporations’ most profitable activities during the past year, introduces the vice president largely responsible for those activities, and discusses new projects the vice president will initiate in the coming year.
In developing a film based on a historical event, a filmmaker conducts interviews with participants in the event, bases part of the film’s screenplay on the interviews, and concludes the screenplay with a sequence of scenes speculating on the outcome of the event had certain details been different.
Solution : A
This is a very easy application question. First, description of the event itself; second, discussion of the social context that helped bring the event about and gave it significance; third, summary of the life history of the individual agent in the event; and fourth, analysis of the consequences of the event both for history and for the individual.”
Only option (a) satisfies all the 4 conditions.
Based on the passage, which one of the following is the LEAST illustrative example of the effect of a contingency upon an individual?
the effect of the fact that a person experienced political injustice on that person's decision to work for political reform
the effect of the fact that a person was raised in an agricultural region on that person's decision to pursue a career in agriculture
the effect of the fact that a person lives in a particular community on that person's decision to visit friends in another community
the effect of the fact that a person's parents practiced a particular religion on that person's decision to practice that religion.
Solution : C
Look at these lines -
“Contingencies include such things as the social conditions under which we come of age, the condition of our household’s economy, the ideologies available to help us make sense of our situation, and accidental circumstances. The ways in which contingencies affect our individual or group identities create a structure of forces within which we are able to act, and that partially determines the sorts of actions we are able to perform”.
Option (c) is wrong because it says that -
“the effect of the fact that a person lives in a particular community on that person’s decision to visit friends in another community”.
The error is “another community” because he does not know anything about the other community.
The error would have been corrected if the answer would have been -
“the effect of the fact that a person lives in a particular community on that person’s decision (to visit friends in the same community)/(not to visit friends in the same community)”.
A. The likelihood of an accident is determined by how carefully the motorist drives and how carefully the pedestrian crosses the street.
B. An accident involving a motorist and a pedestrian is such a case.
C. Each must decide how much care to exercise without knowing how careful the other is.
D. The simplest strategic problem arises when two individuals interact with each other, and each must decide what to do without knowing what the other is doing.
Solution : D is the best opening sentence since it introduces the topic being discussed. B goes on to give a supporting example to it. A further describes the example and C talks about the idea in A.
Hence, the correct order of sentences is DBAC.
A. Both parties use capital and labour in the struggle to secure property rights.
B. The thief spends time and money in his attempt to steal (he buys wire cutters) and the legitimate property owner expends resources to prevent the theft (he buys locks).
C. A social cost of theft is that both the thief and the potential victim use resources to gain or maintain control over property.
D. These costs may escalate as a type of technological arms race unfolds.
E. A bank may purchase more and more complicated and sophisticated safes, forcing safecrackers to invest further in safecracking equipment.
Solution : The best opening statement is C. A continues with the same idea. B then describes the way in which both the thief and owner waste their money. This is followed by D which talks about escalating costs. E is the concluding statement.
Hence, the correct sequence is CABDE.
1. If you are feeling wronged at work or you think life is not being fair to you, then you may face an increased risk of suffering a heart attack. 2. In a unique study that linked fairness with heart health, researchers from the university college London found that those who felt they were being unfairly treated by their employer, family or society were twice as likely to suffer serious heart disease as those who perceived the world as fair. 3. People in the high category were 55% more likely to have serious heart diseases as those who did not feel they were unfairly treated. Women and those with lower incomes and status significantly felt they were being unfairly treated. 4. Reacting to the study, Dr. Ashok Seth, head of cardiology at max Healthcare, said, because people are better off nowadays, earning a lot more money than what they did 15 years ago, stress of running a house has decreased significantly.
Solution : A
The first sentence is tricky. Although it appears to have a cause effect relationship,the subject of the sentence deals with feelings and those are always judgmental. Hence only options (a) and (d) are possible. Sentence 2 is clearly a fact. Sentence 3 is also a fact. The consequences are clearly outlined in sentence 4.Hence statement 4 is an inference.
1. The South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation represents 25 percent of the world population. Important features of SAARC include its biodiversity, its large population coverage, and its cultural heritage. 2. But the people of SAARC countries are still poor and backward; the per capita income is low; unemployment and terrorism have created tensions in the region; quality education and healthcare are not available to all. 3. Since one billion citizens of SAARC countries live in villages, rural life can be improved only by providing better physical connectivity, electronic and knowledge connectivity, land reforms and agrarian reforms. 4. India should extend the programme called "Providing Urban Amenities in Rural Areas” (PURA) to other remote and backward states to lift them from the quagmire of poverty, unemployment, and dogmatism.
Solution : B
Statement 1 and 2 are based on facts about SAARC countries. Statement 3 is based on judgment about how life of its people can be improved and statement 4 is based on judgment how India can help.