# Free Verbal Practice Test - CAT

Which of the following would be the most appropriate title for the passage?

A.

Poetry and Satire as Influences on the Novels of Montana Scalp

B.

Montana Scalp: Critic and Commentator on the Twentieth-Century Novel

C.

Trends in Contemporary Reform Movements as a Key to Understanding Montana Scalp's Novels

D.

Montana Scalp's Novels: Critical Reflections on the Individual and on Society

#### SOLUTION

Solution : D

This question asks you to identify the most appropriate title for the passage. Option (d) is the correct answer. The topic of the passage is Scalp’s novels, and the author emphasizes   that   the   novels   contain observations concerning ‘how individuals are shaped (or deformed) by their social environments’. In fact the entire first paragraph of the passage is devoted to the fact that Scalp was much more than just a poetic novelist; that she was a social visionary who tried to look critically at the individual, society and social systems.

In the first paragraph of the passage, the author's attitude toward the literary critics mentioned can best be described as:

A.

disparaging

B.

ironic

C.

factious

D.

skeptical but resigned

#### SOLUTION

Solution : A

The literary critics discussed in the first paragraph ignored Scalp’s intention to criticize society and saw her as a ‘poetic’ novelist unconcerned with the real world. This question asks you to identify the tone of the remarks made by the author of the passage concerning this assessment of Scalp’s work. Option (a) is the correct choice. The author’s characterization of the critics’ assessment as ‘cavalier’ can be described as ‘disparaging’. In this context, both ‘cavalier’ and ‘disparaging’ refer to casually and disrespectfully dismissing an important matter.

It can be inferred from the passage that Scalp chose Checky as a literary model because she believed that:

A.

Checky was the first English author to focus on society as a whole as well as on individual characters.

B.

Checky was an honest and forthright author, whereas novelists like D. H. Lawrence did not sincerely wish to change society

C.

Checky was more concerned with understanding his society than with calling its accepted mores into question

D.

Checky's writings were greatly, if subtly, effective in influencing the moral attitudes of his readers

#### SOLUTION

Solution : D

The author discusses Scalp’s literary models, emphasizing Checky, in the last paragraph. The reason why Scalp chose Checkyas her model is not directly stated in the passage but must be inferred from the information there. Option (d) is the correct answer. It indicates that Scalp’s work as a moralist is subtle and done ‘by indirection’. Scalp’s statement that readers absorb morality at every pore despite the fact that no laws were changed because of Checky, indicates that she believed Checky’s influence to be subtle. Therefore, it is likely that it was Checky’s subtle effectiveness that led Scalp to choose him as a model.

It can be inferred from the passage that the most probable reason Scalp realistically describes the social setting in the majority of her novels was that she:

A.

was aware that contemporary literary critics considered the novel to be the most realistic of literary genres.

B.

was interested in the effect of a person's social milieu on his or her character and actions

C.

needed to be as attentive to detail as possible in her novels in order to support the arguments she advanced in them

D.

wanted to show that a painstaking fidelity in the representation of reality did not in any way hamper the artist.

#### SOLUTION

Solution : B

The author states that Scalp’s novels presented social settings realistically. The question asks why Scalp did so. Option (b) is the best answer. In the first paragraph, the author states that:“In her novels, Scalp is deeply engaged by the questions of how individuals are shaped (or deformed) by their social environments, how historical forces impinge on people’s lives, how class, wealth and gender help to determine people’s fates.” This shows that Scalp was interested in the effect of social environment on the individual.

What does the author mean by the 'hardware from Athens'?

A.

The laptops at Athens that were given away as a memento to the athletes

B.

The gaming devices given out by Nike to commemorate the spirit of the games

C.

The medals won by various athletes at the competition

D.

None of these

#### SOLUTION

Solution : C

The author mentions this in the second para of the passage and then goes on to say – “including 50 gold medals and dozens more silver and bronze. In the men’s 1,500-meter run, for instance, Hicham El Guerrouj of Morocco grabbed gold, Bernard Lagat of Kenya took the silver….” This makes choice (c) correct.

What does the author describe as an instance of "Guerilla marketing”?

A.

Nike's use of a simple sign like Swoosh to communicate its brand

B.

Nike's use of Swoosh logos at Atlanta on the apparel worn by the players

C.

Using camera tricks to make the Swoosh logo appear when Champion had sponsored the tournament

D.

Nike's use of Swoosh logo at Atlanta in the arena when it was sponsored by Champion

#### SOLUTION

Solution : D

This term is used in the third para where the author mentions – “Eight years ago in Atlanta, Nike ambushed basketball sponsor Champion by sneaking giant Swoosh signs into the arena. When the cameras panned the stands, TV audiences saw the Nike logo loud and clear, while Champion had nothing”. This is indicative of guerrilla tactics where Nike used clever tricks to steal Champion’s thunder. This makes choice (d) correct.

What is the author trying to convey by quoting Phil Knight's question, "How do we know you're asking for enough?”

A.

Scott's demand for a hike in the marketing budget was deemed undesirable

B.

The small company was taking a very economical view regarding its marketing expenditure

C.

D.

Knight is very detail conscious and he wanted to know the break up of the expenditure

#### SOLUTION

Solution : C

The author has mentioned this incident in the fourth para and describes how Scott, the marketing chief was not sure about the huge increase but he was faced with a different question regarding whether this is enough or his division needs more money. This makes choice (c) correct.

Which of these statements is the author likely to agree with the most?

A.

Nike has made a success out of a culture of creativity and it is going back to it after failing to make it into a regular company

B.

Nike has made a success out of a culture of creativity, but it is now trying to balance it with discipline

C.

Nike has made a success out of a culture of creativity, but it is now trying to enforce discipline due to its failure in the present context

D.

Nike has made a success out of a culture of creativity, but that would be sustainable till Knight heads the company

#### SOLUTION

Solution : B

The author makes this point at various places in the passage - The seventh para – “Nike believes its newfound discipline will enable it to meet its targets of 15% average annual profit growth and revenue growth in the high single digits”, the sixth para – “In the old days, Nike operated pretty much on instinct. It took a guess as to how many pairs of shoes to churn out and hoped it could cram them all onto retailers’ shelves. Not anymore”, the fifth para – “In the past few years, the company has devoted as much energy to the mundane details of running a business — such as developing top-flight information systems, logistics, and supply-chain management — as it does to marketing coups and cutting-edge sneaker design”. All of them describe the blend of creativity and discipline that is being adopted by Nike.

Which one of the following best describes the main point of the passage?

A.

It is only since the early 1970s that folklore studies have begun to recognize women as important bearers of folklore.

B.

A careful analysis of the repertoires of women folk performers has led to a new discovery with important implications for future folklore studies

C.

Recent studies of women folk performers have focused primarily on the problems of repertoire analysis to the exclusion of a discussion of the culture within which the folklore was developed

D.

A change in the focus of folklore studies has led to increased interest in women folk performers and to a new understanding of the importance of the context in which folklore is produced

#### SOLUTION

Solution : D

The author starts the passage saying that till recent times studies of folklore concentrated on lore and the people involved were not given much importance. Look at the line which follows-“However, since the early 1970s, folklore studies have begun to regard folk performers as people of creativity who are as worthy of attention as are artists who transmit their ideas in writing. This shift of emphasis has also encouraged a growing interest in women folk performers”. Also look at the last line of the passage- “This realization has potential importance for future folklore studies in calling greater attention to the type of study required if a folklorist wants truly to understand the role folklore plays in a particular culture”. From these two lines, we can easily arrive at Option (d).

The author of the passage refers to The Dynamics of Folklore primarily in order to:

A.

support the idea that it is too soon to tell whether or not folklorists are giving greater attention to women's folklore

B.

refute Weigle and Farrer's contention that folklorists prefer to collect folklore from men rather than from women

C.

support the assertion that scholarship devoted to women folk performers tends to focus primarily on repertoire

D.

suggest that there are some signs that women folk performers are gaining increased critical attention in the field of folklore

#### SOLUTION

Solution : D

Look at the lines –“Perhaps more telling is the focus of the most recently published major folklore textbook, The Dynamics of Folklore. Whereas earlier textbooks gave little attention to women and their folklore, this book devotes many pages to women folk performers”. So the author refers to The Dynamics of Folklore in order to show that women folk performers have started getting attention, making option (d) the right answer.

The focus of which one of the following books would most clearly reflect the current interest of the folklorists mentioned in the last paragraph?

A.

an anthology of tales and songs collected exclusively from women in different cultures

B.

a compilation of tales and songs from both men and women covering a great variety of traditional and nontraditional topics

C.

a study of the purpose and meaning of a tale or song for the men and women in a particular culture

D.

an analysis of one particular tale or song that documents changes in the text of the folklore over a period of time

#### SOLUTION

Solution : C

The passage focuses on the shift of focus on the part of folklorists.  The author is of the opinion that recent works in folklore study show that the folklorists are now started focusing on the context of the folklore and the role folklore plays in a particular culture. Option (c) is in line with this as it talks about the purpose and meaning of a tale or song and hence, is the correct answer.

Based on the information in the passage, which one of the following is most closely analogous to the type of folklore studies produced before the early 1970s?

A.

An anthropologist studies the implements currently used by an isolated culture, but does not investigate how the people of that culture designed and used those implements

B.

A manufacturer hires a consultant to determine how existing equipment in a plant might be modified to improve efficiency, but does not ask employees for their suggestions on how to improve efficiency

C.

A historian studies different types of documents dealing with a particular historical event, but decides not to review newspaper accounts written by journalists who lived through that event

D.

An archaeologist studies the artifacts of an ancient culture to reconstruct the life-style of that culture, but does not actually visit the site where those artifacts were unearthed

#### SOLUTION

Solution : A

From the passage, we can understand that before 1970s, folklorists used to concentrate only on the lore-songs, tales etc and the people involved were usually ignored. The study described in option (a) is analogous to this- the anthropologist studies the objects, but does not study how people designed and used the objects.

Ayesha refused to be phased (A) / fazed (B) by their insulting remarks. The fort was bombarded withcanon (A) / cannon (B) fires by the enemy. According to the law, all citizens must be given equitable(A) / equable (B) treatment. As soon as the king died, lawlessness reigned (A) / reined (B) over the city.Such inflammable (A) / inflammatory (B) remarks could lead to a communal discord.

A.

BBAAB

B.

ABAAB

C.

BBBAB

D.

BAAAA

#### SOLUTION

Solution : A

The usage of the word 'phase' would be incorrect in the first sentence because it refers to a stage in a process or an aspect. Instead, the word 'faze' which means 'disturb' would fit in appropriately. In the second sentence, 'canon' refers tolaws, principles whereas 'cannon' is a part of artillery. The word 'equitable' means impartial or just and 'equable'means steady. The third sentence refers to the equal and fair treatment given to all citizens by the law. The word 'reign'means to rule whereas 'rein' means to check or stop, control.The given sentence refers to lawlessness dominating the city. 'Inflammable' is used for something that can be easily seton fire whereas 'inflammatory' refers to something that provokes anger or hostility. A communal discord can occurdue to inflammatory remarks. Therefore, the correct option should have the sequence BBAAB. Hence, option (A) is the correct answer choice

I. Nothing must be (A) slower / (B) slovenor slipshod; every door, every fence, must be kept in good repair. II. I have shown specimens of this incrustation to several geologists, and they all thought that theywere of (A) ingenious / (B) igneous origin. III. In Great Mischief, your author eschewed the (A) solecism / (B) solipsism he had committed in DieFasting, of creating fictional dialogues for real historical figures. IV. As they prefer warm and damp conditions, pharaoh ants do not build their nests but simply inhabitany convenient (A) crevice / (B) crevasse. V. (A) Crimping / (B) Crumpling and fluting the edge of a pie adds a homemade touch to just aboutany pie.

A.

BBAAA

B.

BBABA

C.

ABBBA

D.

BBBAA

#### SOLUTION

Solution : A

The word 'slipshod' refers to a haphazard. The other word should complement it and hence 'sloven' which means untidy or careless in appearance is a be fitting word. The word 'igneous' is more appropriate in the second sentence. 'Ingenious' stands out of context. In sentence 3, 'solecism' means committing a grammatical oridiomatic error- here it would refer to incorrect semantics and hence would be the right pick.'Solipsism' is the philosophical theory that the self is all thatyou know to exist and is therefore out of context. In sentence 4, (A) 'crevice' which is an arrow crack or space, especially in the surface of a rock,befits the sentence. A 'crevasse' is a very deep crack in the thick ice of a glacier.In sentence 5, 'fluting' is the act of incising or making grooves.This hints that the other word to correspond it should be'crimping' and not 'crumpling'. 'To crimp' is to make ridges by pinching together. To 'crumple' means to crush. Therefore, the correct sequence should be BBAAA thus making answer option (A), the correct answer choice.

No one is ______about Antony; he inspires either uncritical adulation or profound _____in those whowork for him

A.

Neutral...antipathy

B.

Infuriated...aversion

C.

Enthusiastic...veneration

D.

Apprehensive...consternation

#### SOLUTION

Solution : A

Option: (A) The sentence clearly highlights a contrast by using "either...or”. This means the first sentence would use a word that indicates 'everyone has opinions about Antony'. Options (a) and (d) provide the firstwords that might fit in. The second blank would be the deciding factor. Since the first word displays a positive emotion, the second blank would give it a contrast in the form of a negative emotion. 'Consternation', which means a state of paralyzing dismayed, would not fit in here. 'Antipathy', which clearly conveys a negative emotion, would be the best fit.

Many of the important scientific laws were discovered during experiments designed to ___________other phenomena suggest that experimental results are the ___________ of the inevitable naturalforce rather than of planning.

A.

Test, foundations

B.

Analyze, conditions

C.

Illuminate, consequences

D.

#### SOLUTION

Solution : C

Option: (C) It is evident that the only suitable word for the second blank is "consequences”. This is because,the experimental results can never be foundations/conditions/adjuncts of anything.

Deregulation of electricity markets in the United States has resulted in supply disruptions and in higher prices for consumers. Properly understood, however, this phenomenon does not cast doubt on the economic principle that free-market competition is generally more efficient than state planning. Certain particularities of electricity as a commodity - including the impossibility of storing electricity, the inelasticity of demand for electricity, and the high barriers to entry for new producers - are peculiar obstacles to the creation of competitive electricity markets. In the above argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A.

The first is a historical claim that the author rejects; the second is the theoretical basis for his rejection of that claim

B.

The first describes an apparent exception to a theory that the author accepts as true; the second is that theory

C.

The first is the basis for the author's critique of conventional economics; the second is his summary of conventional economic thought

D.

The first is a particular example of a broader trend; the second is that trend

#### SOLUTION

Solution : B

This argument can be diagrammed as follows:
(P1) Deregulation of electricity markets...has resulted in supply disruptions and in higher prices for consumers.
(P2) Certain particularities of electricity as a commodity...are peculiar obstacles to the creation of competitive electricity markets.
(C) Properly understood...the phenomenon in (P1) does not cast doubt on the economic principle that free-market competition is generally more efficient than state planning.
The argument describes (in P1) what happened after electricity deregulation, explains (in P2) why this is an anomaly attributable to the particularities of electricity, and concludes that the phenomenon described in (P1) does not really challenge the general principle that free markets are more efficient than state planning.

Notice that the first boldface is simply (P1), and that the second boldface is the economic principle that, according to the conclusion, is not really challenged by (P1). In picking your answer choice, it is a good idea to focus first on how each answer choice characterizes the first boldface. Once you have eliminated the ones that incorrectly characterize the first boldface, you should choose among the remaining answer choices based on how they characterize the second boldface.
(A) The author presents the first boldface as a fact; he does not "reject" it. The second boldface is, therefore, not a theoretical justification for any such rejection.
(B) CORRECT. The first boldface is an apparent exception to the economic theory or principle stated in the second boldface. (The point of the argument is to show that this apparent exception does not invalidate the principle.)
(C) The author never offers a critique of "conventional economics"; if anything, he seems concerned to defend an economic principle. The second boldface is far too short and restricted to be a "summary of conventional economic thought.".
(D) The passage gives no indication that the problems with electricity deregulation are part of a "broader trend." Indeed the whole of sentence 3 is an explanation of why electricity is a special case. This answer choice fares even worse in its characterization of the second boldface, which is a principle, not a trend

Four alternative summaries are given below the text. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the text.
Making up our own minds about our identity and choosing our own beliefs is surely a crucial step on the road to strength and independence as an individual. At the same time, there is a genuine and legitimate need in all of us to be linked to others by emotional ties and by ties of shared beliefs.

A. We can be strong and independent, in making up our mind and choose our own beliefs. However, there is a need for emotional ties and ties of shared beliefs.
B. In order to be strong and independent, a person should make up his mind and choose his own identity and beliefs and curb the desire to be linked to others by emotional ties and ties of shared beliefs.
C. An important step towards becoming strong and independent is choosing one's own beliefs. This, however, is curbed by the desire to be linked to others by emotional and cultural ties.

D. One should suppress one's desire to be linked to others by emotional ties and walk on the path of strength and independence by choosing our own beliefs.

A.

A

B.

B

C.

C

D.

D

#### SOLUTION

Solution : A

On the one hand we should be independent in making up our minds, on the other we should link
to others emotionally and through shared beliefs. Statement B is wrong as it says 'curb the desire
to be linked to others', C says independence is curbed by the desire to be 'linked and D says we

must suppress the desire to link - all of which are wrong. Only A states the idea correctly

Which of the following statements are true with respect to the passage?

A.

Knowledge management demands a postmodern epistemological perspective

B.

Post modernism tries to force people into the mold of a specific way of thinking and acting

C.

Functionalists are highly emotional people

D.

The management of irreconcibiality and pluriformity will be an unavoidable and indispensable prerequisite for all types of management ideology

#### SOLUTION

Solution : A

Look at these lines -
“Postmodernism belies all grand narratives like those of positivism and even Habermas’s theory of rationality; that try to force people into the mold of a specific way of thinking and acting”.
It is actually grand narratives that try to force people into the mold of a specific way of thinking and acting.
So (b) is wrong.
(c) is too strong an option. Functionalists may be emotional but they are not too emotional.
(d) Functionalism is also a management ideology. It does not manage irreconcilability and pluriformity. So (d) is wrong.
Look at these lines -
“Management of incommensurability and heterogeneity in organizations expressly demands a postmodern epistemological perspective.”
So we can safely derive answer option (a) as the right answer.

Which of the following are true regarding functionalism, as brought out in the passage?

1) It is a concept held by people with vested interests.
2) It cannot lead to continous innovation and learning in organization.
3) Deuteron learning and n-th order changes are not part of this approach.
4) It cannot manage the cognitive and normative differences and preferences as part of the organizational practice.
5) It has a neutral idea of knowledge and rationality.

A.

1,2,3 & 4

B.

2,3 but not 5

C.

2, 3 & 4

D.

3 but not 1

#### SOLUTION

Solution : B

Look at these lines in the second paragraph “Incompatibility or incommensurability are then seen as a grave threat to vested interests”.
1) is too strong. You cannot conclude that functionalism is held by people with vested interests. The author states that incompatibility is a threat to vested interests. The author also states that functionalism does not give a solution to incompatibility.
That does not mean that functionalism is a concept held by people with vested interests.
2) Look at these lines -
“If, however, knowledge management and therefore also management education wish to be able to pride themselves on the fact that they aspire to continuous innovation and learning in organizations, then the management of irreconcilability and pluriformity will be an unavoidable and indispensable prerequisite for its success.”
The author also states that functionalism does not give a solution to incompatibility.
So we can safely conclude that (2) is correct.
3) Look at these lines -
“Such concepts as deuteron learning, n-th order changes, and innovation (instead of improvements) do not fit into the latter approach”.
The latter approach refers to the functional approach.
So (3) is correct.
4) Look at these lines in the first paragraph.
“In order to manage the cognitive and normative differences and preferences as part of organizational practice, knowledge management and thus management education will have to detach themselves from a functionalist management ideology”
The lines state that knowledge management and management education will not be able to manage the cognitive and normative difference if it uses functionalist management ideology.
It does not state that functionalism is not able to manage the difference.The point to be noted is that knowledge management and management education has the role to manage cognitive and normative differences. Functionalism is not able to manage incompatibility.
So (4) is not true w.r.t. to functionalism.
5) Let us have a look at these lines from the first paragraph
“From a functionalist management ideology, and the positivistic idea of knowledge and rationality which is associated with it”
So the author states that there is a positive relation between knowledge and rationality.
So (5) is not true.
So the best answer option would have been “2, 3, not 1, not 4 and not 5”
Only (b) comes closest to the best answer.

According to the passage, post modernism:

A.

shrinks from a totalitarian approach

B.

gives equal weightage to incommensurability and homogeneity

C.

belies all great narratives like those of positivism and even Habermas's theory of rationality on the levels of both epistemology and social philosophy

D.

All of these

#### SOLUTION

Solution : A

Look at these lines -
“Postmodernism belies all grand narratives like those of positivism and even Habermas’s theory of rationality that try to force people into the mold of a specific way of thinking and acting”.
“Positivism and even Habermas’ theory of rationality, which under the guise of universality attempted to force people into a certain way of thinking and acting, as history has so adequately demonstrated, do not shrink from a totalitarian approach.”
From the above two lines we can infer that (a) could be right.
“As is evident from the above quotation, postmodernism believes all great narratives on the levels of both epistemology and social philosophy”.
We find that answer option is (c) is wrong.
Option (b) is out of scope. It is not mentioned anywhere in the passage that post modernism gives equal weightage to incommensurability and homogeneity.
So (a) is the correct answer.

The most important problem posed by the existence of different interest, that is to say different mental models and paradigms about and within organizations, is how to tackle their (potential) incompatibility.  In order to manage the cognitive and normative differences and preferences as part of organizational practice, knowledge management and thus management education will have to detach themselves from a functionalist management ideology, and the positivistic idea of knowledge and rationality which is associated with it.  Such concepts as deuteron learning, n-th order changes, and innovation (instead of improvements) do not fit into the latter approach.  Functionalism has a marked preference for unity above diversity, for harmony above conflict, for (functional) integration, and it chooses order above the potential chaos of continuous change.
Incompatibility or incommensurability is then seen as a grave threat to vested interests.  Functionalists in particular react too emotionally and with disgust at the idea of (apparent) unreconcilable differences which adhere to incommensurability.  If, however, knowledge management and therefore also management education wish to be able to pride themselves on the fact that they aspire to continuous innovation and learning in organizations, then the management of irreconcilability and pluriformity will be an unavoidable and indispensable prerequisite for its success.
Postmodernism belies all grand narratives like those of positivism and even Habermas’s theory of rationality, that try to force people into the mold of a specific way of thinking and acting.  Postmodernism explains this tendency of grand theoretical system by positing two central characteristics of human reason : first, there is the fundamental and inalienable freedom or reason to conceptualize ‘the world’ in different ways, while second, each of these conceptualizations has a built-in and irreducible claim to university.
Management of incommensurability and heterogeneity in organizations expressly demands a postmodern epistemological perspective.  Such concepts as incommensurability and internal differences have a prominent place in postmodernism.  As is evident from the above quotation, postmodernism believes all great narratives on the levels of both epistemology and social philosophy.  Positivism and even Habermas’ theory of rationality, which under the guise of universality attempted to force people into a certain way of thinking and acting, as history has so adequately demonstrated, do not shrink from a totalitarian approach.
Postmodernism shows that the incompatibility of grand theoretical system is to be traced to two central features of human reason : first, the fundamental freedom of thought with which to view the world in one’s own and therefore different way, and second, the inbuilt claim to universality, i.e. that one considers one’s own point of view to be the best.  It is for this reason that in practice it is not enough to minimalize the differences between alternative perspectives (which could lead to a kind of pluralistic indifference);  neither would it do to resolve the conflicts between them in a forcible manner (this would lead only to dogmatism).  Managing differences will therefore be a challenge for knowledge management to find which leading element would be helpful in steering the ship of organization past the rocks of totalitarian rule and then around the cliffs of indifference.
A suitable title for the passage could be:

A.

Post Modernism Vs Functionalism

B.

Irreconcilability and pluriformity-factets of post modernism

C.

Management of incompatibility in a postmodern perspective

D.

Heterogeneity and incommensurability in management ideology

#### SOLUTION

Solution : C

The main theme of the passage is -
“Management of incompatibility is a very important aspect for knowledge management and management education. Functionalism is not able to help people to manage it. The author suggests that post modernism can help management education to manage incompatibility.”
This is best captured by (c).
The main theme of the passage is not to compare functionalism and post modernism. So (a) is wrong.
(b) is a half-baked answer. It is not talking about post modernism.
(d) is again a half-baked answer.

As per the passage, knowledge management will be successful if it is able to:

A.

Manage pluralistic indifference

B.

Manage the dogmatism

C.

Manage incompatibility, heterogeneity and internal differences of various interests or practices or preferences

D.

Manage unity over diversity

#### SOLUTION

Solution : C

Look at these lines -
“It is for this reason that in practice it is not enough to minimalize the differences between alternative perspectives (which could lead to a kind of pluralistic indifference);  neither would it do to resolve the conflicts between them in a forcible manner (this would lead only to dogmatism).  Managing differences will therefore be a challenge for knowledge management to find which leading element would be helpful in steering the ship of organization past the rocks of totalitarian rule and then around the cliffs of indifference.”
So we find that only answer option (a) or only answer option (b) is not enough for knowledge management to be successful.
Option (d) is junk. Look at these lines from the first paragraph -
“Functionalism has a marked preference for unity above diversity”.
So functionalism manages unity over diversity and the author is against functionalism in knowledge management.
So the best answer option is (c).

Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

A.

Javan rhinos are one of the most endangered animals on the planet.

B.

More is known about the genetics of the Javan rhino than is known about its mating patterns.

C.

Most animal extinctions are the result of human actions.

D.

Genetic diversity is the most important factor for the survival of a species.

#### SOLUTION

Solution : B

The correct answer to this question will be a claim that must follow from text contained in the passage. This question does not provide any clues as to where the justifying text will be found.
(A) The first paragraph mentions that the Javan rhino is the most endangered species of large mammal. However, it does not have to be true that it is one of the most endangered animals, a category that is far broader than mammals.
(B) CORRECT. The first paragraph states that very little is known about the life of the Javan rhino. The passage does indicate, however, that scientists have been able to extract information on the species’ DNA from gathered dung. The paragraph also suggests that very little information about female Javan rhinos has been gained, given that scientists only recently discovered whether or not females of the species even have horns. Thus, one can infer that more is known about the genetics of the Javan rhino than its mating patterns.
(C) The passage only discusses the Javan rhino; therefore, a generalization about the extinction of "most animals" is not supported by the passage.
(D) The passage does not mention other survival factors for a species or rank them; therefore, this inference is not supported by the passage.

According to the passage, which of the following best explains why the number of Javan rhinos in Vietnam cannot be increased by additions from those in the Ujung Kulon peninsula?

A.

The Indonesian Javan rhinos constitute a separate sub-species.

B.

The Javan rhinos cannot swim to Vietnam and have no land route available.

C.

Neither Vietnam nor Indonesia has the funds for such a project.

D.

Javan rhinos in the Ujung Kulon peninsula are almost impossible to capture.

#### SOLUTION

Solution : A

The passage mentions the Ujung Kulon peninsula in the second paragraph. Immediately before that, the passage states that Indonesian Javan rhinos cannot supplement those in Vietnam because they have evolved into separate sub-species. The correct answer choice will rely upon this fact.
(A) CORRECT. This choice rephrases the information in the second paragraph which states that the Indonesian Javan rhinos have evolved into a separate subspecies.
(B) The passage does not mention the aquatic abilities of the Javan rhino nor can it be assumed that they would have to get there without human assistance.
(C) The passage does not discuss the funds available in either country; therefore this choice is incorrect.
(D) The passage does not mention the difficulty involved in capturing a rhino; therefore this choice is incorrect.

If everything you knew about office life came from NBC's serial mockumentary "The Office," you would be forgiven for thinking romance is the main spice of workplace life. Yet the hit show confirms with satire what recent studies have demonstrated with numbers: Romances shape office life, and human resource departments don't have much to say about it. _____________________________________ As one HR professional puts it: "There is a feeling of resignation among HR people. Mostly they close their eyes and hope for the best.”

A.

In fact they are helpless as there no clear cut rules and regulations

B.

But given the potential fallout from workplace relationships, companies retreat on this issue at their own risk

C.

But they can have a negative impact on the office life of workers if the relationships fail

D.

There is a great concern regarding this among HR professionals

#### SOLUTION

Solution : B

According to the passage, romances shape office life and the HR department of the company cannot say much about it. Option (a) says that there are no rules and regulations that the HR department can use against office romances. This is in line with the idea presented in the passage as the line following the blank says that the HR department has a feeling of resignation as they cannot really quote rules to reprimand those involved in office relationships. Option (b) says that the company chooses to ignore the presence of romance but it can lead to a potential fallout between the people involved in the romance. Option (d) goes against the idea as it is clearly given that the HR department is ignoring the presence of office romances. Option (c) goes outside the scope of the passage.
Hence option (a) is the correct answer.

Given the economic inequalities in the country, you will get a tremendously unequal delivery of medical attention. There is no way of escaping it. There are a lot of rich people in the country and there is no way you can prevent them from having state-of-the-art medical attention within India if they can pay for it.

A.

Poor people cannot afford high quality medical attention.

B.

Else they will go to foreign countries to get the required medical attention.

C.

There is no way you can say it's all right to buy a yacht or a villa but not medical treatment.

D.

The rich people cannot be blamed for the unequal delivery of medical attention.

#### SOLUTION

Solution : C

The last line has to follow logically for the passage. The passage talks about how the rich will get superior treatment if they can pay for it due to the economic inequalities in the country. Option (a) just states a fact but cannot be the last line as there is no logical flow. Option (b) talks about foreign countries but it is irrelevant here as we are talking about the economic inequalities within the country. Option (c) is the best answer that continues in line with the rich getting unequal medical treatment and there is no way the poor can call it unfair. Option (d) does not have enough to be an effective last line.

__________________________________________________________; a hungry man has to eat food to appease his hunger. Another example is the case of a sick person. He will be able to regain health only if he takes the prescribed medicine and follows the recommended diet strictly. If one wants to know how the moon looks like it is possible only if one sees it with one's eyes and not by another's description.

A.

Don't give money to a hungry man as it cannot fill his stomach

B.

You can help people by sharing their burden but in certain cases it is of no use. For example

C.

Nobody can fill up a hungry man's stomach

D.

If someone is carrying a heavy load on his head another person can help him by relieving him of the burden but not so his pangs of hunger

#### SOLUTION

Solution : D

The introductory line must introduce the ideas that are elaborated in the passage. The passage talks about how each man must take care of his own needs and nobody else can do it for him. The first example is about a hungry man and how only food can appease his hunger. Option (d) is the introduction to this example. Even if we carry a man's burden nobody can satisfy his hunger. It is also in keeping with the idea given in the entire passage about how the sick man can only get better if he takes his medicines regularly and also the analogy with the moon. Option (a) talks about money which is irrelevant here. Option (b) only talks of certain cases but this is true always. Hence it is eliminated. Option (c) is too vague.
Hence option (d) is the correct answer.

A. Take her account of Mr. Bush's Yale years.
B. Mr. Bush, on the other hand, spent his time doing everything but burnishing his credentials.
C. The case against Ms Kelley is not just that she fails to rake new muck.
D. The Ivy League universities are full of grubbing prodigies who regard themselves as the next president.
E. It is that she makes her principal target, the current president, look rather good.

A.

CDEAB

B.

AEDBC

C.

D.

AEBDC

#### SOLUTION

Solution : C

Sentence C is the best opening sentence as it introduces the protagonist for this paragraph Ms Kelley. Sentence E then states what the criticism against her is. Sentence A quotes a slice from this and sentence D describes what the usual scenario is in Ivy League universities and sentence B then contrasts that with what Bush did. This makes choice (c) most appropriate.

A. An old and semi-apocryphal story is routinely doing the rounds at the elections
B. The nub of the story is this: Sir Peter's association sought to dissuade him from standing on the grounds of his advanced age, reasoning that, should he die mid-term, the cash-strapped Tories of Louth would not be able to bear the cost of fighting a by-election.
C. It concerns negotiations between Sir Peter Tapsell, the 74-year old Conservative member for Louth and his constituency association, ahead of the forthcoming general election.
D. Sir Peter is said to have a written a personal cheque for the estimated 10,000 $cost of a by election campaign E. He posted it along with the instruction that it is cashed in the event of his death. F. This is seen as one more instance of his wit and ability to create hype about his candidature A. ACBDEF B. AEDCBF C. AEDCBF D. ACEDBF #### SOLUTION Solution : A Option (a) The opening sentence introduces the existence of a story. Sentence C then goes on to mention what the story is about. Sentence B tells the reader about the plot of this story and sentence D then describes Sir Peter's reaction to a set of events. Sentence E completes the account of his action. This makes choice (a) correct, which sentence F remarking on the relevance of this story. This makes choice (a) correct. A. In general, the British Internet boom mirrored what had happened on the other side of the Atlantic a year or two earlier. B. Lastminute.com shared all of these attributes. C. This was a replay of events twelve months previously, when the US market witnesses Priceline.com issuing stock on the NASDAQ and ending its first day as a public company worth almost 10 bn$.
D. In March 2000, for example, Lastminute.com, the most widely-hyped of all British companies, issued stock on the London Stock Exchange and achieved a valuation, albeit fleetingly, of more than 800 mn \$.
E. Priceline.com allowed airlines and hotels to unload their spare capacity cheaply online; it made heavy losses; and Morgan Stanley, a leading Wall Street investment bank, marketed its shares to the public.
F. The principal difference between the British bubble and the American bubble was one of scale

A.

AEDCBF

B.

ACDEBF

C.

D.

ABCEDF

#### SOLUTION

Solution : C

The first sentence describes an observation. Out of the options provided, sentence D presents an example of a company in London issuing stock and is the next sentence. Sentence C comments introduce an analogy with an American company which went through the same "sequence of events”. Sentence E then goes on to describe the fate of Priceline and sentence B mentions how these attributes were shared with Lastminute.com. Sentence F qualifies the comment made in the first sentence by highlighting a difference between the two bubbles. This makes option (c) correct

1. Legacy airlines, on the other hand, are more likely to run old, carbon-spewing jumbos. Nearly half of BA's transatlantic capacity, for example, is accounted for by 747s.
2. On average, a nonstop transatlantic flight and back spews out about a tonne of CO2 emissions per passenger but that figure hides a big spread in the fuel efficiency measures of different airlines.
3. One reason for its impressive performance is that it predominately runs a fleet of modern, efficient Boeing 787-8s. The planes it uses are, on average, also only two years old and its high pax-km/l is also down to the fact that it squeezes in more passengers.
4. A new study of the 20 biggest transatlantic carriers by the International Council of Clean Transportation (ICCT) found that there was a 51% difference between the fuel efficiency of the best-performing airline, Norwegian Air Shuttle, and the worst, British Airways (BA). Norwegian, on average, flies at 40 passenger-kilometres per litre of jet fuel (pax-km/l).___

#### SOLUTION

Solution : As sentence 1 has the phrase 'on the other hand, it cannot begin the paragraph. Similarly, sentence 3 also cannot begin the paragraph as it has 'its' in the first line. These words and phrases depend on prior references. Sentence 3 follows 4 as it mentions why Norwegian airline is the best performing one and sentence 1 follows 3 as it contrasts the poor fuel efficiency of legacy airlines with the good performance of Norwegian airlines. So 431 form a chain. If 2 follows 1, there is no link. On the other hand, if 2 precedes 4, it introduces the issue that is further elaborated by 4.
So the sequence is 2431.

1. So a part of the idea of near-zero interest rates in the US is to discourage saving and to encourage borrowing.
2. It seems hard these days to find anyone who has a good word for savings, or savers.
3. There has been talk of a global "savings glut" for a decade now, and Ben Bernanke the former chief of the US Federal Reserve, one of the original proponents,still sees the concept as a "useful perspective" for understanding current economic conditions.
4. The perceived problem is that money saved is not money spent and thus the effect of saving is to reduce aggregate demand; by keeping a dollar in your pocket, you deprive a neighbor of employment.
5. This is the "paradox of thrift"; if everyone tries to save too much, the economy will contract and the average person will be poorer, not richer.
___

#### SOLUTION

Solution :

Sentences 4 and 5 form a continuum as sentence 5 further explains the paradox posed and answered by sentence 4. Now sentences 2 or 3 can start the paragraph but sentence 2 is more appropriate as a starting sentence as it introduces the topic of problem with savings rather than starting straight away with the explanation. Sentences 3 and 1 have the link of US between them and 4 follows 1 as it mentions why saving is discouraged.
So, 23145 is the correct sequence.

A. Parmenides was a native in Elea, in the south of Italy, and flourished in the first half of the fifth century B.C.

B. According to Plato, Socrates in his youth had an interviewwith Parmenides, then an old man, and learnt much from him.

C. Whether or not this interview ishistorical, we may at least infer, what is otherwise evident, that Plato himself was influenced by thedoctrines of Parmenides.

D. The south Italian and Sicilian philosophers were more inclined to mysticismand religion than those of Ionia, who were on the whole scientific and sceptical in their tendency.

The correct sequence is___

#### SOLUTION

Solution :

In sentence A, 'native in Elea' should be replaced by 'native of Elea' . A person is a native 'of' a place.

In sentence D, tendency should be replaced by its plural 'tendencies' as the tendencies of many people are being referred to. Sentences B and C are correct