Free Verbal Practice Test - CAT
The speaker of this poem is most likely
an adult woman.
an adult man.
a young boy.
Nature's People or human beings in general.
Solution : B
Stanza 3 contains the phrase when a boy implying the speaker was a boy in the past and is now, therefore, an adult man.
Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?
The historical backgrounds of two currently used research methods are chronicled.
The use of a research method is described and the limitations of the results obtained are discussed.
Solution : D
In the passage, the author hasn’t really talked about two different research methods. So answer options (a) and (b) can be eliminated. Nor has the author proposed any new method. Hence, answer option (c) can also be eliminated. However, if we look at answer option (d), it very precisely conveys the organization of the passage by stating that a research method is described and the limitations of the results obtained are discussed. This is in perfect tandem with the actual organization of the passage. Therefore, answer option (d) clearly stands out as the right answer choice.
Which of the following is most similar to the actions of nineteenth-century ethnologists in their editing of the life stories of Native Americans?
A witness in a jury trial invokes the Fifth Amendment in order to avoid relating personally incriminating evidence.
A stockbroker refuses to divulge the source of her information on the possible future increase in a stock's value.
A sports announcer describes the action in a team sport with which he is unfamiliar.
A chef purposely excludes the special ingredient from the recipe of his prizewinning dessert.
Solution : C
This is a hypothetical question. The author has stated in the third paragraph that “Editors often decided what elements were significant to the field research on a given tribe. Native Americans recognized that the essence of their lives could not be communicated in English and that events that they thought significant were often deemed unimportant by their interviewers”. From this, we can understand that the author is trying to present a situation wherein a person doing a particular act is not really familiar to the act himself/herself. Option (c) very well reflects such a situation by talking about a sports announcer describing the action in a team sport with which he is unfamiliar. Therefore, answer option (c) is the correct answer choice.
According to the passage, collecting life stories can be a useful methodology because:
Life stories provide deeper insights into a culture than the hypothesizing of academics that are not members of that culture
Life stories can be collected easily and they are not subject to invalid interpretations
Ethnologists have a limited number of research methods from which to choose
Life stories make it easy to distinguish between the important and unimportant features of a culture
Solution : A
The author very clearly states in the first paragraph that “Ethnologists had a distinct reason for wanting to hear the life stories: they were after linguistic or anthropological data that would supplement their own field observations, and they believed that the personal stories, even of a single individual, could increase their understanding of the cultures that they had been observing from without.” Answer option (a) restates the same thing. In fact, answer options (b), (c) and (d) have not been mentioned by the author in the passage at all as a reason as to why collecting life stories can be a useful methodology. Hence, it is evident as answer option (a) is the correct answer choice.
According to the passage, most consumer-goods markets share which of the following characteristics?
I. Customers who differ significantly from each other
II. Large number of potential customers
III. Customers who each represent a small percentage of potential sales
I and II only
I, II, and III
Solution : D
All the characteristics mentioned as statements I, II and III are mentioned as the characteristics of most consumer-good markets in the last paragraph. Therefore, answer option (d) is the correct answer choice.
The author mentions “trousers” (1st paragraph) most likely in order to:
Make a comparison between the program target and the program audience
Emphasize the similarities between the market segment and the program target
Provide an example of the way three groups of consumers are affected by a marketing program
Clarify the distinction between the market segment and the program target
Solution : D
If we read the first paragraph carefully, it is evident that the author mentions “trousers” in order to clarify the distinction between the market segment and the program target. This is because just before that, the author has described what “market segment” and “program target” actually mean. And then, he has tried to support his explanation with an example by mentioning “trousers”. Therefore, answer option (d) is undoubtedly the correct answer choice.
Which of the following best exemplifies the situation described in the last two sentences of the passage?
A product suitable for women between ages 21-30 is marketed at meetings attended only by potential customers.
A company develops a new product and must develop an advertising campaign to create a market for it.
An idea for a specialized product remains unexplored because media exposure of the product to its few potential customers would be too expensive.
A product suitable for men aged 60 and above is advertised in a magazine read by adults of all ages.
Solution : D
In the last two lines of the passage, the author has mentioned that “Unfortunately, there are few media that allow the marketer (one that deals in a market; specifically: one that promotes or sells a product or service) to direct a marketing program exclusively to the program target. Inevitably, people get exposed to a great deal of marketing for products in which they have no interest and so they become annoyed.” We can deduce from the aforesaid that marketing is being targeted at the entire program audience irrespective of their interests. Option (d) also mentions a similar situation wherein a product suitable for men aged 60 and above is advertised in a magazine read by adults of all ages. Therefore, it is evident that answer option (d) is the correct answer choice.
He is distinct about what is right and what is wrong. Mars became distinct on the horizon in the month of August. The distinct strains of Ravi's violin could be heard above the general din. Ghoshbabu's is a distinct case of water rising above its own level.
Solution : A
Option: (A) The word 'distinct' has been wrongly used in the statement "He is distinct about what is right and what is wrong”. Instead, the correct word that should have been used in place of the word 'distinct' is 'clear'.
"A”: Our state is considering raising the age at which a person can get a driver's license to eighteen.
This is unfair because the age has been sixteen for many years and sixteen-year-olds today are no less responsible than their parents and grandparents were at sixteen.Many young people today who are fourteen and fifteen years old are preparing to receive their licenses by driving with a learner's permit and a licensed driver, usually one of their parents. It would not be fair to suddenly say they have to wait two more years.
"B”: It is true that people have been allowed to receive a driver's license at sixteen for generations.
However, in recent years, the increase in traffic means drivers face more dangers than ever and must be ready to respond to a variety of situations. The fact that schools can no longer afford to teach drivers' education results in too many young drivers who are not prepared to face the traffic conditions of today.
What is the point at issue between "A” and "B”?
whether sixteen-year-olds should be required to take drivers' education before being issued a license
whether schools ought to provide drivers' education to fourteen- and fifteen-year-old students
whether the standards for issuing drivers' licenses should become more stringent
whether sixteen-year-olds are prepared to drive in today's traffic conditions
Solution : D
The speakers support their arguments in different ways, but both are concerned with
whether sixteen-year-olds should continue to be allowed to receive drivers' licenses.
It is mistaken to attribute Novi's failure to the publicity about the supposedly inhuman working conditions in the foreign factories that furnish Novi with many of its parts. Novis failure has more to do with defects in its products than with any boycott on moral grounds. After all, plenty of other companies are supplied by factories with working conditions just as bad as those in Novi's suppliers, and the public does not hesitate to buy their products.
The argument in the passage is based on which of the following assumptions?
People are unlikely to let moral considerations affect what products they decide to purchase
People who patronize companies supplied by factories where working conditions are as bad as those of Novi's suppliers are aware of those conditions
Novi's sales did not dip sharply after the poor working conditions in the suppliers' factories became known
the poor quality of Novi's products is not a result of the working conditions in the foreign factories where its parts are manufactured
Solution : B
What is the argument in the passage?
"..plenty of other companies are supplied by factories with working conditions just as bad as those in Novi's suppliers, and the public does not hesitate to buy their products”
The assumption here, is an unstated sentence, which leads to the argument in the passage. Look at option (b)
"People who patronize companies supplied by factories where working conditions are as bad as those of Novi's suppliers are aware of those conditions”
Only if the people know of the bad conditions, can a statement be made about the public not being hesitant about buying the products in spite of the bad working conditions. Hence, answer is option (b)
Therapists use a variety of techniques to help individuals cope with work related stress. One of these is 'positive' memory', where you are encouraged to think of a happy, life-enhancing memory whenever you feel overwhelmed by stress. A similar approach is 'positive imaging', where you are directed by the therapist to look at the best-case scenario. When we are stressed it is too easy to take the overwhelmingly negative viewpoint - to see everything in terms of black and grey. Positive imaging encourages individuals to think about the good things that can come out of any situation
There are two techniques used by therapists to cope with work related stress.= One is positive memory, when a person who is stressed out is made to think of a happy memory.= Another approach which is different from positive memory, is positive imaging, where a person is made to look at the most positive scenario.
B. Among the various techniques used by therapists to help people combat work related stress are 'positive memory' and 'positive imaging'. In the former technique the stressed out person is made to think of a happy memory. The latter is similar to the former, here the stress victim is made to look at the best case scenario thereby preventing the person from falling a pray to negative thinking.
C. One can suppress one's negative feelings with the help of positive memory and positive imaging where a person is made to imagine a positive situation that is likely to take place in the future.
D. Therapists help individuals to cope with related stress using two different techniques, positive memory and positive imaging.With the help of these techniques the individual is made to suppress his negative thoughts and live in an imaginary would of positive thinking.
Solution : C
The paragraph talks of 'positive memory' and 'positive imaging' as tools to overcome negative
viewpoints. A, B and D uses more words than required to convey the idea.
In paragraph two, the author states that in their "democracy” students in the multiplicity stage are directionless. The writer describes multiplicity students as being in a "democracy” because
there are so many different kinds of people in a democracy.
in an "ideal” democracy, all people are considered equal; by extension, so are their opinions.
Democrats generally do not have a good sense of direction.
in a democracy the individual has ultimate authority over himself, not the elders.
Solution : B
This is an extension question. Multiplicity students view all opinions as equally valid. They are yet to learn how to rank opinions (truths)— all votes (thoughts) count equally. The answer is (b).
Which one of the following kinds of thinking is NOT described in the passage?
People who assume that there is no right or wrong in any issue
People who make unreasoned commitments and stick by them
People who believe that right or wrong depends on the situation
People who think that all behavior can be accounted for by cause and effect relationships
Solution : D
This is a description question. (a): No, these are the Multiplists. (b): No, Dualists think this way. (c): No, this describes Relativists. Multiplists acknowledge no right or wrong; whereas Relativists acknowledge a morality, but one that is context-dependent.
Hence, by the process of elimination, we can say that the answer is (d).
If students were asked to write essays on the different concepts of tragedy as exemplified by Cordelia and Antigone, and they all responded by showing how each character exemplified a traditional definition of tragedy, we could, according to the passage, hypothesize which one of the following about these students?
The students had not advanced beyond the dualist stage.
The students had at least achieved the multiplicity stage.
The students had reached the commitment stage.
We have no indication of which cognitive stage the students were in.
Solution : B
This is an application question. First and foremost there are different concepts of tragedy.
They all showed “how each character exemplified a traditional definition of tragedy”.
The meaning is each character exemplified different traditional definitions of tragedy.
Note: If the statement was “each character exemplified the traditional definition of tragedy” then all of them had the same definitions of traditional definition of tragedy and the answer would have been (a).
But since we have the article “a” and not “the”, the answer is not (a). Since the students have not reached the same definition, it can’t be (c). In commitment stage, all the students need to have the same rational and correct definition of tragedy.
So, the answer is (b). In multiplicity stage people have different definitions. Here we don’t know whether the choice is rational or not. That’s why the best answer is (b) as it states that “the students had at least achieved the multiplicity stage”. Whether they are stuck there or they have gone to relativistic stage is unknown.
The author states that in a "kindlier version” of multiculturalism, minorities discover "that they can play a part in molding the larger culture even as they are molded by it.” If no new ethnic groups were incorporated into the American culture for many centuries to come, which one of the following would be the most probable outcome of this "kindlier version”?
At some point in the future, there would be only one culture with no observable ethnic differences.
Eventually the dominant culture would overwhelm the minority cultures, who would then lose their ethnic identities.
The multiplicity of ethnic groups would remain but the characteristics of the different ethnic groups would change.
The smaller ethnic groups would remain, and they would retain their ethnic heritage.
Solution : A
This application question clearly goes well beyond the passage. If no new ethnic groups were incorporated into the American culture, then the interplay between the larger and smaller groups would continue, with both groups changing, until there would be only one common (and different from any original) group.
Answer (c) is a very close answer option. But the question talks about what will happen after many centuries. Option (c) states what is happening now. After many centuries we will expect things to change and not stay the way they are (as stated in the passage).
The author speaks about the "politics of identity” that Phillip Green, a political scientist at Smith, notes is all-consuming for many of the students. Considering the subject of the passage, which one of the following best describes what the author means by "the politics of identity”?
The attempt to discover individual identities through political action
The political agenda that creates an identity based on ethnicity
The current obsession for ethnicity that helps individuals discover their inner selves
The trend among minority students to discover their identities in their ethnic groups rather than in their individuality
Solution : D
Don’t be led astray by (b); it uses the word “political” to tempt you. Although it is perhaps a good description, it is not within the context of the passage, which focuses on ethnic politics, not national identities through “roots.”
The key to answer this question lies in the second paragraph “notes that for a significant portion of the students the politics of identity is all-consuming. Students he says “are unhappy with the thin gruel of rationalism. They require a therapeutic curriculum to overcome not straightforward racism but ignorant stereotyping.”
The students are stereotyped based on their ethnic groups. Their identity is bound to their race and it is consumes them totally or they are totally abide by it.
That’s why the answer is (d).
"Multiculturalist relativism” is the notion that there is no such thing as impartial or objective knowledge. The author seems to be grounding his criticism of this notion on:
the conclusion that relativism leaves one with no clear notions of any one thing that is true.
the absurdity of claiming that knowledge of oppression is more valid than knowledge of scientific facts.
the agreement among people of all cultures as to certain undeniable truths- e.g., when the sky is clear, day is warmer than night.
the fact that "truth” is not finitely definable and therefore that any discussion of impartial or objective truth is moot.
Solution : A
Look at these lines in the passage -
“Impartial knowledge, they argue, is not possible, because ideas are simply the expression of individual identity, or of the unspoken but inescapable assumptions that are inscribed in a culture or a language. The problem, however, with this warmed-over Nietzscheanism is that it threatens to leave no ground for anybody to stand on”
These lines clearly point to (a) as the right answer.
It can be inferred from the passage that a woman with a Ph.D. in psychology who gives a lecture to a group of students is probably MOST concerned with:
whether her students learn the material.
what the males in the audience think of her.
how she comes off as a speaker in psychology.
whether a man challenges her.
Solution : C
This is an application question; we are asked to apply what we have learned from the passage to a hypothetical situation. The best way to analyze this question is to compare the speaker to a joke-teller. The passage paints a portrait of a woman as most concerned with the image she presents to the world. She is not concerned with the speech or joke, per se, rather with how she delivers it. “Only a man can make a good joke for its own sake.” The answer is (c).
Don’t make the mistake of choosing (b). Although men have, in the main, molded her self-image, she has gone beyond that; she now measures herself in the abstract: “how will it come off to the ultimately critical audience?” and not “how will actual audience members see me?”
The passage portrays women as:
Solution : C
This description question is a bit tricky because the second-best choice is rather good. Women are concerned with the image they present, so they cannot be themselves—they must act their part. Hence the answer is (c). You may have been tempted by (a). According to the passage, women are thrown into the role of an actress, “into the keeping of men.” So, like victims, they are not responsible for their social position. However, nothing in the passage directly suggests that it is wrong for women to be in this position or that women attempt to refuse this role. According to the passage, therefore, women are not, strictly speaking, victims. (Victim means “someone not in control of something injurious happening to him or her.”)
Which one of the following is NOT implied by the passage?
Women have split personalities.
Men are not image-conscious.
Good looks are more important to women than to men.
A man is defined by what he does, whereas a woman is defined by how she appears.
Solution : B
This is an extension question. The passage discusses the fact that a man may fabricate his image in the following lines of the first paragraph.
“His presence may be fabricated, in the sense that he pretends to be capable of what he is not.”
This suggests that men are conscious of their images, but the passage also states that image is not intrinsic to their personalities, as it is for women. The answer is (b).
Choose the grammatically correct option of the underlined part given below.
If the claims of coastal nations to 200-mile territorial seas were accepted on a worldwide basis, more than thirty per cent of the world's ocean area would come under the jurisdiction of one or other national states.
One or other national states
One or another national state
One or the other national state
Some or another of the national states
Solution : B
One or other - means between first or second that is out of two choices.
One or another - means between multiple choices not restricted to two.
Here we need one or another. So the answer is (b)
The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produce ripples in the air flowing over them; the resulting flow pattern, with crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are know
Crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are
(A) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, is
Stationary crests and troughs although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are
Stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air, is
Solution : B
The main challenge in this sentence is to observe the agreement of subject and verb (the resulting flow pattern... is known...) despite the distraction of a complex intervening structure containing several plural elements (with crests and troughs...). Choices A, and C can, therefore, be eliminated because they use an incorrect plural verb form, are. Choice D uses the correct verb form, is, but it incorrectly introduces a dependent
adverbial although clause into a prepositional phrase (with crests ...). Choice D also makes this error. Such dependent clauses can only occur in the predicates of full clauses. B, the best choice, uses the correct verb form, is, and correctly puts the although clause inside the predicate of the relative clause (that... rapidly).
In mental work one advantage of adhesive-bonding over spot-welding is that the contact, and hence the bonding, is effected continuously over a broad surface instead of a series of a regularly spaced points with no bonding in between.
as opposed to
in contrast with
rather than at
Solution : D
Option: (D) The corrected sentence must contrast an effect of spot-welding with an effect of adhesive-bonding. To do so logically and grammatically, it must describe the effects in parallel terms. When inserted into the sentence, D produces the parallel construction over a broad surface rather than at a series. Having no word such as over or at indicate location, choices A, B, and C fail to complete the parallel and so illogically draw a contrast between surface and series.
For years, Mt. Desert Island, particularly its major settlement, Bar Harbor, afforded summer homes for the wealthy. Recently though, Bar Harbor has become a burgeoning arts community as well. But, the best part of the island is the unspoiled forest land known as Acadia National Park ._____________________
It also lies in a major bird migration lane and is a resting spot for many birds.
The establishment of Acadia National Park in 1916 means that this natural reserve will be perpetually available to all people, not just the wealthy.
Visitors to Acadia may receive nature instruction from the park naturalists as well as enjoy camping, hiking, cycling, and boating
Because the island sits on the boundary line between the temperate and sub-Arctic zones, the island supports the flora and fauna of both zones as well as beach, inland, and alpine plants
Solution : D
The given passage talks about Bar Harbor and how it has become an arts community. The paragraph ends by talking about the unspoiled forest land of Acadia National Park. Hence the last line must essentially contain an explanation as to why the national park is unspoiled. This is best expressed only in option (d). Option (a) talks about bird migration which does not end the para effectively. Option (b) talks about the availability of the park to different people which is irrelevant here. Option (c) also goes outside the scope of the passage. There is no talk about how visitors can get instructions in the passage. Hence option (d) is the correct answer.
In such a flat environment, disputes will have to be resolved by new rules of the game. For, the existing legal principles are predicated on the theory of territorial supremacy of the nation states and the laws are essentially territorial in their application.This will give way to the denationalisation of justice. Irrespective of nationality or location, participants in the web-enabled global playing field will opt to be governed by a new set of rules, contractually accepted by them, and not their national laws. ______________
The authority of law will shift from sovereignty of nation states to consensual submission to rules evolved contractually by the participants
This will give rise to more and more people exercising the option to choose their own dispute settlement forum
This, in turn, may have interesting implications for dispute settlement.
For example, the process itself may take the form of parties sitting in different jurisdictions submitting themselves to the authority of a judicial forum located somewhere else -- all brought together on a real time basis through the process of tele-immersion, which will give the illusion of all the parties being present in the same place.
Solution : B
Consider the last line of the paragraph, "Irrespective of nationality or location, participants in the web-enabled global playing field will opt to be governed by a new set of rules, contractually accepted by them, and not their national laws.” The chosen option must be in synchronized logically with this line. Option (a) goes too far beyond the scope of the passage by talking about national sovereignty and is easily eliminated. Option (c) is a likely answer. Option (d) tries to explain through the help of an example but out of all these, option (b) seems to be the best answer as it clearly underlines the fundamental reason for people not wanting to be governed by their national when in a web-enabled global playing field.
News like that makes people stop and think about pay, reward, and merit. Where to begin? The first rule should always be transparency. The BBC should reveal all fees to ensure there really is a genuine market in talent out there. And that should be a general rule, not just in public bodies but everywhere. People do know more or less what everyone else earns in the public sector, so why not make it compulsory for all?________
The shock at first would be seismic, with eruptions of rage and embarrassment all round
It would put a stop to secretive employers who divide and rule by spreading uncertainty and insecurity about what the person at the next desk might be getting
Making tax returns public helps to stamp out fraud and tax evasion, risking exposure of any undeclared income.
Solution : A
The last sentence should strengthen the argument the author puts forth with an actual situation where this kind of transparency works. This is why option (a) is the best concluding statement
1. Jumping a fence of prickly pears, Gumat Hussain, a local chief in the driest district of North Wollo, Ethiopia's most drought-prone province, walks gloomily through his sorghum.
2. This was because of a particularly strong El Niño effect, which this year made swathes of Africa drier than usual, along with a longer-term drying of Ethiopia's climate, especially in the north and east.
3. In many lowland parts of North Wollo, a day's drive north of Addis Ababa, the capital, the annual midsummer rains lasted for under a week.
4. "The crops have not produced grain. They are useless even for the animals,” he sighs. "My oxen and goats will soon die. Our people will wait only for the government to respond.”
5. Now it is harvest time and the tall, green crops belie their fruitlessness.
Sentences 2, 4 and 5 cannot start the paragraph as they require a prior context. We are left with 1 or 3. Sentence 3 cannot begin the paragraph as it already assumes that the reader knows about North Wallo. So sentence 1 is the starting sentence. 1 and 4 form a pair as they share the link of Gumat Hussain. Similarly, 3 and 2 are a pair as 2 explains why the annual mid summer rains mentioned in sentence 3 lasted only for a week. Sentence 5 begins a new topic.
So, the correct sequence is 14325.
1. However, just how much they actually required would not be known until the European Central Bank (ECB conducts a probe into their books together with a stress test examining how they would be affected if the economy turned even sourer than expected in 2015-17.
2. Greek banks had been undermined for over half a year as deposits drained out of them, on worries about a possible exit from the euro once Syriza, a radical left party, won the election held in January 2015.
3. Even so, the notion that they would need as much as €25 billion to offset the damage and put them on a sound footing appeared unduly pessimistic.
4. They had been further hurt by the harm done to the economy and thus to their loans arising from Syriza's ill-judged attempt to outbluff its official creditors.
5. When the third Greek bail-out was outlined in principle after an extraordinarily fraught summit of euro-zone leaders, between €10 billion and €25 billion out of the total sum of up to €86 billion of help was set aside for bank recapitalisation.
Solution : Sentences 1, 3 and 4 cannot start the paragraph as they contain references to prior statements. 2-4-3 form a sequence that conveys the notion that even though the Greek banks have suffered setbacks, they are not in a hopeless situation. Statement 1 follows 3 as it provides an answer to the question posed by statement 3 regarding the level of bailout required for Greek banks. It's now clear that statement 5 must be there in the beginning rather than at the end.
So the correct sequence is : 52431.
1.These stricter standards are needed to give a better account of who did what and when in a world where market crashes can happen in a flash.
2.The scientists therefore met with regulators, banks and trade bodies from all over Europe, to discuss how to implement the directive.
3.The purpose of the high-tech clock is to tell banks and trading services exactly what the time is, so that they can comply with a new set of accounting rules, called the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive II, which will come into force in 2017.
4.Such atomic clocks were first proposed to be used in the New York stock exchange before the advent of the Second World War.5. Among many other things, this directive drastically tightens rules on the time-stamping of transactions.
It is evident that sentences 3,5,1 and 2 are all related to the directive and form a coherent paragraph in the order 3512. While sentence 4 is related to atomic clocks, it does not form a part of the context as it has no mention of the directive.
1. They quickly clarified that they have no intention of closing the border.
2. As her poll numbers fall, calls are growing for German Chancellor Angela Merkel to do exactly that.
3. But they also have said they will not be able to leave it open if Germanydecides it can no longer handle an influx that brought more than a half-million asylum seekers to the country during the first nine months of the year.
4. The Austrian government has decided to call a Europe wide convention to decide on the number of refugees each country admit.
5. Austrian officials said last week that they are planning barriers to better regulate the movement of migrants coming across from Slovenia.
Sentences 5-1-3 form continuum as they refer to the position of Austrians on leaving their borders open for refugees. Sentence 2 refers to what Germany may do regarding refugees and this follows sentence 3. Sentence 4, even though related to the context of refugees, does not fall under the scope of the passage (the position of Austrians regarding leaving their border gates open to refugees to pass through but not settle in Austria).
1. A large segment of white middle-aged Americans has suffered a startling rise in its death rate since 1999, according to a review of statistics that shows a sharp reversal in decades of progress toward longer lives.
2. An increase in the mortality rate for any large demographic group in an advanced nation has been virtually unheard of in recent decades, with the exception of Russian men after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
3. The rising death rate was accompanied by an increase in the rate of illness, the authors wrote in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
4. The mortality rate for white men and women ages 45-54 with less than a college education increased markedly between 1999 and 2013, most likely because of problems with legal and illegal drugs, alcohol and suicide, the researchers concluded. Before then, death rates for that group dropped steadily, and at a faster pace.
5. Drug addiction experts have warned that increased addiction to drugs by such a large segment of the population can pose a huge social burden on the next generation of Americans.
Sentence 1 states the issue (a startling rise in the death rate of a segment of population) and sentence 4 provides the reasons behind the phenomenon. Sentences 2 and 3 again deal with mortality rates. Sentence 5 is related to drug addiction and is not a part of this particular paragraph.
(It may be a part of the larger text but is out of place for this paragraph).
Enter the correct option sequence for the words given in the paragraph below.
Scraps of tantalizing(A)/gnawing(B) but inconclusive evidence surfaced Tuesday in the fourth day of a tense investigation into the Russian plane that crashed over Egypt's troubled Sinai Peninsula last weekend, killing all 224 aboard. Investigators have not yet officially said whether the plane disintegrated in midair over the Sinai, scattering debris(A)/trash(B) over seven square miles of desert, due to a technical malfunction, act of terror, or another reason. A public quarrel erupted Monday after Metrojet, the small Russian airline vying(A)/scrambling(B) to protect its reputation after the devastating crash, said that external factors were the cause of the plane's disintegration rather than technical issues or pilot error.
The correct sequence is
The evidence has aroused expectations but is still inconclusive. So it is 'tantalizing'. Gnawing means biting or corroding, which is inappropriate in this context. Trash refers to waste that is produced in daily life. Debris is the right word for the wreckage produced in a crash. The airline will 'hurry' or 'hasten' to protect its reputation after the crash and hence scramble is the right word. Vying means to compete and the company is not competing against someone to protect its reputation.
Enter the correct option sequence
Parmenides was a native of Elea, south of Italy, and flourished in the first half of the fifth century B.C. According to Plato, Socrates in his youth had an interview with Parmenides, then an old man, and learnt much from him. Whether or not this interview is historical, we may at least infer, what is otherwise evident, that Plato himself was influenced by the doctrines of Parmenides. The south Italian and Sicilian philosophers were more inclined to mysticism and religion than those of Ionia, who were on the whole scientific and skeptical(A)/dissenting(B) in their tendencies. But mathematics, under the influence of Pythagoras, flourished more in Magna Graecia than in Ionia; mathematics at that time, however, was fettered(A)/entangled(B) with mysticism. Parmenides was influenced by Pythagoras, but the extent of this influence is disputable(A)/conjectural(B). What makes Parmenides historically important is that he invented a form of metaphysical argument that, in one form or another, is to be found in most subsequent metaphysicians down to and including Hegel. He is often said to have invented logic, but what he really invented was metaphysics based on logic.
The word here should be the opposite of 'religious' so that it flows with the direction of the sentence. The opposite of religious should be skeptical rather than dissenting which means rebellious. Mathematics can be mixed with mysticism in the sense that some mysticism may accompany mathematics but it cannot be fettered to mysticism which means that it is chained to it and can never escape mystical influences.The author wants to say that the extent of Pythagoras's influence on Parmenides is subject to speculation, i.e., it is conjectural. Disputable is not inaccurate but is less appropriate in this context.