# Free Verbal Reasoning - 09 Practice Test - CAT

I am sometimes attacked for imposing 'rules'. Nothing could be further from the truth. I hate rules. All I do is report on how consumers react to different stimuli. I may say to a copywriter, "Research shows that commercials with celebrities are below average in persuading people to buy products. Are you sure you want to use a celebrity"? Call that a rule? Or I may say to an art director, "Research suggests that if you set the copy in black type on a white background, more people will read it than if you set it in white type on a black background."__________

A. Guidance based on applied research can hardly qualify as "rules'
B. Thus, all my so called 'rules' are rooted in applied research
C. A suggestion perhaps, but scarcely a rule
D. Such principles are unavoidable if one wants to be systematic about consumer behavior
E. Fundamentally it is about consumer behavior - not about celebrities or type settings

#### SOLUTION

Solution : C

If we look at the flow of the paragraph, option (c) seems to fit in best because in the last line, the author is talking about the suggestion he would give to an art director. Option (a) is also pretty close but nowhere in the paragraph is the author trying to give any guidance. He is only talking of suggestions

Age has a curvilinear relationship with the exploitation of opportunity. Initially, age will increase   the likelihood that a person will exploit an entrepreneurial opportunity because people gather   much of the knowledge necessary to exploit opportunities over   the course of their lives,   and   because   age   provides credibility   in transmitting   that information   to others.   However, as people become older, their willingness to bear risks declines, their opportunity costs rise, and they become less receptive to new information._______________________________

A. As   a   result,   people   transmit   more   information   rather   than   experiment   with   new   ideas   as   they   reach   an advanced age
B. As a result, people are reluctant to experiment with new ideas as they reach an advanced age
C. As a result, only people with lower opportunity costs exploit opportunity when they reach an advanced age
D. As a result, people become reluctant to exploit entrepreneurial opportunities when they reach an advanced age
E. As a result, people depend on credibility rather than on novelty as they reach an advanced age

#### SOLUTION

Solution : D

The paragraph talks about the exploitation of opportunity and its relationship with age. The appropriate ending would, therefore, be one that draws conclusion on the same relationship. Out of all the answer options, (d) is the only one which talks of this relationship clearly

Thus the end of knowledge and the closing of the frontier that it symbolizes is not a looming crisis at all, but merely one of many embarrassing fits of hubris in civilization's long industry. In the end, it will pass away and be forgotten. Ours is not the first generation to struggle to understand the organizational laws of the frontier, deceive itself that it has succeeded, and go to its grave having failed._____

A. One would be wise to be humble
B. But we might be the first generation to actually reach the frontier
C. But we might be the first generation to deal with the crisis
D. However, this time the success is not illusory

#### SOLUTION

Solution : B

Option (b) is the most appropriate choice. Option (a) does not make any sense. Option (c) is wrong because we might not be the first generation to deal with this crisis. Option (d) is also wrong as success was not illusory earlier as well

Most firms consider expert individuals to be too elitist, temperamental, egocentric, and difficult to work with. Force such people to collaborate on a high-stakes project and they just might come to fisticuffs. Even the very notion of managing such a group seems unimaginable. So most organizations fall into default mode, setting up project teams of people who get along nicely._____

A. The result, however, is disastrous
B. The result is mediocrity
C. The result is creation of experts who then become elitists
D. Naturally, they drive innovations

#### SOLUTION

Solution : B

If we look at the last line of the paragraph, the author has mentioned that organizations are now focusing on setting up project teams of people who get along nicely rather than those who are experts. Following this flow, answer option (b) fits in perfectly as the right answer choice

(1) Given   the   poor   quality   of   service   in   the   public   sector,   the   HIV/AIDS   affected   should   be   switching   to private initiatives that supply anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) at a low cost.

(2) The government has been supplying free drugs since 2004, and 35000 have benefited up to now - though the size of the affected population is 150 times this number.

(3) The recent initiatives of networks and companies like AIDS Care Network, Emcure, Reliance-Cipla-CII, would lead to availability of much-needed drugs to a larger number of affected people.

(4) But   how ironic   it is   that   we should face a   perennial   shortage   of   drugs   when India   is   one of   the world's largest suppliers of generic drugs to the developing world

A. JFIJ
B. JIIJ
C. IFIJ
D. IFFJ
E. JFII

#### SOLUTION

Solution : E

Sentence (1) uses a very strong word (deterministic word) "“ 'should' which is an indication of a Judgement. Since sentence (2) does not make any assumptions, it is a Fact. Furthermore, sentence (3) makes a valid assumption and uses light words-'would' and hence, can be classified as an inference. Sentence (4) draws a valid conclusion from a fact. Thus, it is an inference

1.Inequitable distribution of all kinds of resources is certainly one of the strongest and most sinister sources of conflict.

2.Even without war, we know that conflicts continue to trouble us - they only change in character

3.Extensive disarmament is the only insurance for our future; imagine the amount of resources that can be released and redeployed. 4.   The economies of the industrialized western world derive 20% of their income from the sale of all kinds of arms

A. IJJI
B. JIJF
C. IIJF
D. JIIF
E. IJIF

#### SOLUTION

Solution : B

Sentences (1) and (3) use very strong words 'certainly one of the strongest and most sinister sources of conflict' and 'only insurance for our future' respectively, thus classifying them as judgements. If we look at the answer options, option (b) stands out as the right answer choice

1. We should not be hopelessly addicted to an erroneous belief that corruption in India is caused by the crookedness of Indians.

2. The truth is that we have more red tape - we take eighty-nine days to start a small business, Australians take two.

3. Red tape leads to corruption and distorts a person's character.

4. Every red tape procedure is a point of contact with an official, and such

contacts have the potential to become opportunities for money to change hands
A. JFIF
B. JFJJ
C. JIJF
D. IFJF
E. JFJI

#### SOLUTION

Solution : C

Statement (2) is an inference because it draws a valid conclusion from a fact. Statements (1) and (3) are judgments because they express opinions that imply approval or disapproval of persons. Looking at the answer choices, only option (c) seems to follow this pattern

(1) So much of our day-to-day focus seems to be on getting things done, trudging our way through the tasks of living - it can feel like a treadmill that gets you nowhere; where is the childlike joy?

(2) We are not doing the things that make us happy; that which brings us joy; the things that we cannot wait to do because we enjoy them so much.

(3) This is the stuff that joyful living is made of - identifying your calling and committing yourself whole heartedly to it.

(4) When this happens, each moment becomes a celebration of you; there is a rush of energy that comes with feeling completely immersed in doing what you love most

A. IIIJ
B. IFIJ
C. JFJJ
D. JJJJ
E. JFII

#### SOLUTION

Solution : D

All four statements are the personal opinion of the author. We can either agree or disagree with them. Hence, all four statements should be classified as judgments making option (d) the right answer choice.

(1) According to all statistical indications, the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan has managed to keep pace with its ambitious goals.

(2) The Mid-day Meal Scheme has been a significant incentive for the poor to send their little ones to school, thus establishing the vital link between healthy bodies and healthy minds.

(3) Only about 13 million children in the age group of 6 to 14 years are out of school.

(4) The goal of universalization of elementary education has to be a pre-requisite for the evolution and development of our country

A. IIFJ
B. JIIJ
C. IJFJ
D. IJFI
E. JIFI

#### SOLUTION

Solution : A

The first statement is an inference, it uses the phrase 'According to all statistical indication', and thus it is a conclusion drawn from the statistical information mentioned in the sentence. The second statement is also an inference. Use of the word 'thus' shows that it is a conclusion. The first part of the statement is a given fact while the second part is the drawn conclusion, so the statement is an inference. Hence, answer option (a) is the correct answer choice

1. Despite the passage of time, a large number of conflicts continue to remain alive, because the wronged parties, in reality or in their imagination, wish to take revenge upon each other, thus creating a vicious circle.
A.   At times, managers are called upon to take ruthless decisions in the long-term interests of the organization.
B.   People hurt others, at times knowingly, to teach them a lesson and, at other times, because they lack correct understanding of the other person have stand.
C.   The delegation of any power, to any person, is never absolute.
D.   Every ruthless decision will be easier to accept if the situation at the moment of committing the act is objectively analysed, shared openly and discussed rationally.
6.   If power is misused, its effects can last only for a while, since employees are bound to confront it someday, more so, the talented ones

C. DABC

#### SOLUTION

Solution : D

Option (d)

The clearest link here is the C-6 link (sentence 6 follows C). This eliminates option (a)

Also, observe the elaboration of the "ruthless decision" in the A-D link. Make it a point to glance through answer options always in these questions.

You can arrive at the answer as option (d)

1. A few years ago, hostility towards Japanese-Americans was so strong that I thought they were going to reopen the detention camps here in California.
A.   Today Asians are a success story.
B.   I cannot help making a comparison to the Anti-Jewish sentiment in Nazi Germany when Jewish people were successful in business.
C.   But do people applaud President Clinton for improving foreign trade with Asia?
D.   Now, talk about the "Arkansas-Asia connection" is broadening that hatred to include all Asian-Americans.
6.   No blinded by jealousy, they complain that it is the Asian Americans who are reaping the wealth.

A. DBAC
B. ABDC
C. DABC
D. ACBD

#### SOLUTION

Solution : A

Option (a)

Note the question "“ answer link. Sentence C is a question and sentence 6 is the answer. Thus, option (d) is out

Now, A has to precede C because sentence C questions statement A. The answer can directly be marked as option (a)

The audiences for crosswords and Sudoku, understandably, overlap greatly, but there are differences, too. A crossword attracts a more literary person, while Sudoku appeals to a keenly logical mind. Some crossword enthusiasts turn up their noses at Sudoku because they feel it lacks depth. A good crossword requires vocabulary, knowledge, mental flexibility and sometimes even a sense of humor to complete. It touches numerous areas of life and provides an "Aha!" or two along the way._____

A. Sudoku, on the other hand, is just a logical exercise, each one similar to the last
B. Sudoku, incidentally, is growing faster in popularity than crosswords, even among the literati
C. Sudoku, on the other hand, can be attempted and enjoyed even by children
D. Sudoku, however, is not exciting in any sense of the term

#### SOLUTION

Solution : A

The paragraph compares crossword enthusiasts and Sudoku lovers. It emphasizes on the multi-dimensionality of crosswords. So the contrasting sentence, in this context, will be the one which highlights Sudoku as a routine exercise

Federer's fifth grand slam win prompted a reporter to ask whether he was the best ever. Federer is certainly not lacking in confidence, but he wasn't about to proclaim himself the best ever. "The best player of this generation, yes", he said, "But nowhere close to ever. Just look at the records that some guys have. I'm a minnow."_____

A. His win against Agassi, a genius from the previous generation, contradicts that
B. Sampras, the king of an earlier generation, was as humble
C. He is more than a minnow to his contemporaries
D. The difference between 'the best of this generation' and 'the best ever' is a matter of perception

#### SOLUTION

Solution : B

Option (c) is clearly wrong because it contradicts Federer's statement that he is the best player of his generation. Federer made a very humble statement. Going with the flow of the last line, option (b) is the most appropriate answer choice

You seemed at first to take no notice of your school-fellows, or rather to set yourself against them because they were strangers to you. They knew as little of you as you did of them; this would have been the reason for their keeping aloof from you as well, which you would have felt as a hardship. Learn never to conceive a prejudice against others because you know nothing of them. It is bad reasoning, and makes enemies of half the world. Do not think ill of them till they behave ill to you; and then strive to avoid the faults which you see in them. This will disarm their hostility sooner than pique or resentment or complaint

A. The discomfort you felt with your school fellows was because both sides knew little of each other. You should not complain unless you find others prejudiced against you and have attempted to carefully analyze the faults you have observed in them
B. The discomfort you felt with your school fellows was because both sides knew little of each other. Avoid prejudice and negative thoughts till you encounter bad behaviour from others, and then win them over by shunning the faults you have observed
C. You encountered hardship amongst your school fellows because you did not know them well. You should learn to not make enemies because of your prejudices irrespective of their behaviour towards you
D. You encountered hardship amongst your school fellows because you did not know them well. You should learn to not make enemies because of your prejudices unless they behave badly with you

#### SOLUTION

Solution : B

Option (b) is the correct answer choice. It best summarizes the idea conveyed by the passage and the advice given. The other answer options state one or the other ideas incorrectly. In option (a), the second statement is clearly incorrect. In options (c) and (d), statement 1 covers only one aspect of the passage.   In the second statement, 'learn to not make enemies' is not talked about in the passage

The human race is spread all over the world, from the polar regions to the tropics. The people of whom it is made up eat different kinds of food, partly according to the climate in which they live, and partly according to the kind of food which their country produces. In hot climates, meat and fat are not much needed; but in the Arctic regions they seem to be very necessary for keeping up the heat of the body. Thus, in India, people live chiefly on different kinds of grains, eggs, milk, or sometimes fish and meat. In Europe, people eat more meat and less grain. In the Arctic regions, where no grains and fruits are produced, the Eskimo and other races live almost entirely on meat and fish

A. Food eaten by people in different regions of the world depends on the climate and produce of the region, and varies from meat and fish in the Arctic to predominantly grains in the tropics
B. Hot climates require people to eat grains while cold regions require people to eat meat and fish
C. In hot countries people eat mainly grains while in the Arctic, they eat meat and fish because they cannot grow grains
D. While people in Arctic regions like meat and fish and those in hot regions like India prefer mainly grains, they have to change what they eat depending on the local climate and the local produce

#### SOLUTION

Solution : A

Answer Option (a) clearly stands out as the right answer choice. Options (b), (c) and (d) are only inferences from the passage and do not bring out the entire summary. Option (a) on the other hand, covers the entire scope of the passage. It offers the essence or the theme of the passage while others offer merely citation.

Although almost all climate scientists agree that the Earth is gradually warming, they have long been of two minds about the process of rapid climate shifts within larger periods of change. Some have speculated that the process works like a giant oven freezer, warming or cooling the whole planet at the same time. Others think that shifts occur on opposing schedules in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, like exaggerated seasons. Recent research in Germany examining climate patterns in the Southern Hemisphere at the end of the last Ice Age strengthens the idea that warming and cooling occurs at alternate times in the two hemispheres. A more definitive answer to this debate will allow scientists to better predict when and how quickly the next climate shift will happen

A. Scientists have been unsure whether rapid shifts in the Earth's climate happen all at once or on opposing schedules in different hemispheres; research will help find a definitive answer and better predict climate shifts in future
B. Scientists have been unsure whether rapid shifts in the Earth's climate happen all at once or on opposing schedules in different hemispheres; finding a definitive answer will help them better predict climate shifts in future
C. Research in Germany will help scientists find a definitive answer about warming and cooling of the Earth and predict climate shifts in the future in a better manner
D. More research rather than debates on warming or cooling of the Earth and exaggerated seasons in its hemispheres will help scientists in Germany predict climate changes better in future

#### SOLUTION

Solution : B

Option (b) is the answer because it talks about scientists being unsure about rapid shifts in earth's climate and how finding a definitive answer would help them to predict the future climatic changes. Option (a) cannot be the answer as it talks about research in general and the paragraph gives more emphasis on finding a "definitive answer" in terms of climatic change. Option (c) is not considered because it gives emphasis only on research done in Germany. Option (d) is ruled out because it specifically gives more importance to scientists of Germany.

Local communities have often come in conflict with agents trying to exploit

Resources, at a faster pace, for an expanding commercial-industrial economy. More often than not, such agents of resource-intensification are given preferential treatment by the state, through the grant of generous long leases over mineral or fish stocks, for example, or the provision of raw material at an enormously subsidized price. With the injustice so compounded, local communities at the receiving end of this process have no resource expert direct action, resisting both the state and outside exploiters through a variety of protest techniques. These struggles might perhaps be seen as a manifestation of a new kind of class conflict

A. A new kind of class conflict arises from preferential treatment given to agents of resource - intensification by the state which the local community sees as unfair
B. The grant of long leases to agents of resource-intensification for an expanding Commercial-industrial economy leads to direct protests from the local community, which sees it as unfair
C. Preferential treatment given by the state to agents of resource-intensification for an expanding commercial-industrial economy exacerbates injustice to local communities and leads to direct protests from them, resulting in a new type of class conflict
D. Local communities have no option but to protest against agents of resource- Intensification and create a new type of class conflict when they are given raw material at subsidized prices for an expanding commercial-industrial economy

#### SOLUTION

Solution : C

(c) Is the most appropriate option. Option (a) does not talk about the expanding commercial-industrial economy. (b) Does not explain the effect of the struggles i.e. a 'new conflict'. (d) is not correct because it talks specifically only of raw materials for expanding economy. Further it says local communities are creating new type of conflict, which is incorrect

Modem bourgeois society, said Nietzsche, was decadent and enfeebled "” a victim of the excessive development of the rational faculties at the expense of will and instinct.   Against the liberal-rationalist stress on the intellect, Nietzsche urged recognition of the dark mysterious world of instinctual desires "” the true forces of life. Smother the will with excessive intellectualizing and you destroy the spontaneity that sparks cultural creativity and ignites a zest for living. The critical and theoretical outlook destroyed the creative instincts. For man's manifold potential to be realized, he must forego relying on the intellect and nurture again the instinctual roots of human existence

A. Nietzsche urges the decadent and enfeebled modem society to forego intellect and give importance to creative instincts
B. Nietzsche urges the decadent and enfeebled modem society to smother the will with excessive intellectualizing and ignite a zest for living.
C. Nietzsche criticizes the-intellectuals for enfeebling the modem bourgeois society by not nurturing man's creative instincts
D. Nietzsche blames excessive intellectualization for the decline of modern society and suggests nurturing creative instincts instead

Solution : D